Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. Example: Studying for a test: more attention, more effort, longer lasting.
Unconscious encoding of incidental information and of well-learned info. Example: No longer need directions after walking to psych class for the first time.
Retention without conscious recollection. Cerebellum, associated with learning how to ride a bike.
The memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”. Hippocampus, memory of events (Independence Day)
Processing information into the memory system. Example: Extracting meaning/Encode and retain info into storage.
Retention of encoded information over time.
Process of getting information out of memory storage.
Memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a 2nd time.
Disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of old info.
Disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new info.
Permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Knowledge, skills, and intelligence. (Limitless)
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten. Example: Magic number 7: 7 items, plus or minus 2 (limited in capacity). 5-9 things; limited in our capacity and duration
Clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
Methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Usually speedier; Use of heuristics. Example: Aisle by aisle to get something, slower but sure.
Simple thinking strategy; allows us to make judgments and solve problems speedier, but more error prone than algorithms. Example: Straight to an aisle to get an item. Sometimes unaware of use.
Tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; Impedient to problem solving.
Rules where we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; Study of meaning.
In language, the smallest unit that carries meaning. May be a word or a part of a word.
Rules for combining words into gramatically sensible sentences in a given language.
In language, a system of rules that enalbes us to communicate with and understand others.
Test designed to predict a person's future performance; capacity to learn
Tests desinged to assess what a person has learned.
A test that measures or predicts what it is supposed to. Wants to know that the test measures what is supposed to be measured.
A test yields consistent results; assess by consistency of scores on 2 halves of the test, or on retesting. Concerned with consistency.
Bell Curve (Normal Curve)
Symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near mean/average.
Individual's character pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Freud's theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; believed patient's free association release previous repressed feelings, so they gain self-insight.
Character pattern of behavior; or a disposition to feel and act as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports. (How we breakdown personality)
Historically significant perspective that emphasizes growth potential of healthy people and individuals' potential for personal growth.
Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between peoples' traits and social context.
Reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drivers. "Pleasure Principle," immediately demands gratification.
Large conscious "executive" part of personality that mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality; "Reality Principle" by satisfying id's desires through pleasure and pain.
Part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment and future aspirations.
Childhood stages of development where id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
Accepted Freud's basic ideas: id, ego, superego. Importance of unconscious. Personality in childhood. Anxiety and defense mechanisms. (Need to be aware of our conscious mind and experiences that impact you, not just unconscious). Didn't believe that everyone was wrapped up in agression and sex as he said other reasons and motivations for people.
Psychoanalytic theory; ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distoring reality. Example: boy is scared to ride roller coaster and holds mom's hand so she's not scared. (Projection: my feelings are now yours). Displacement: to take emotions out on someone else.
Studied self-actualization processes of productive and healthy people.
Unconscious exerts are a powerful influence; shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species history; shared cultural concepts: mother. (humanistic psychologist)
"Reciprocal Determinism." Learn to anticipate a behavior's consequences in situations we are observing. (We look and we learn.)
Sought to balance bias she detected in masculine view of psychology
Interacting influences of behavior internal and cognition and evironment (Bandura).
Lingering focus in which conflicts were unresolved; inability to see problem from new perspective by different mental set. If you get stuck in an immature psychosexual stage.
We don't have intelligence; we have "multiple intelligences" classified by 8 independent intelligences. Range of skills beyond school smarts.
We have one "general intelligence." Factor analysis = statistical. Procedure that identifies clusters of related items. Factor underlying all intelligence abilities.
(WAIS) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Widely used intelligence test (11 subtests). For school-age preschool kids. Standardized, reliable, and valid. Devised the bell curve for intelligence.
Focus on what conditions and processes lead us to optimal health and performance. Explanations: addresses cultural perspectives, individualism, and collectivism.
Founder of "Susan G. Komen for the Cure." Former ambassador to Hungary. Sister to Susan G. Komen. Signed the book at the TCU Bookstore.