Bio Quiz 3

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Bio Quiz 3
2010-11-14 19:42:36

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  1. The Big Bang Model
    Our universe, Galaxy and Earth came about because matter and energy was suddenly distributed outward from a single explosion point. 13-15 billion years ago
  2. Evidence for the Big Bang Model
    Universal expansion, Galaxies are still moving apart from one another; cyclical process.
  3. The Early Earth
    was composed of molten surface, lava, meteorites. Some molecules were also found like Carbon, Methane H2O. (no organic compounds)
  4. Stanley Miller
    Used to test whether compounds could have formed spontaneously on earth. Non- Organic templates to make Organic Templates
  5. The Clay template Hypothesis
    • -Amino acids were dissolved in sea water (positive charge)
    • -Positively charged amino acids became attracted to negatively charged amino acids and stuck together,
    • -Then radiated by the suns light energy, initiated bonding of amino acid into the very first peptide chain.
  6. Hydrothermal Vents
    • (amino acid in water)
    • Super heated mineral rich water getting expelled as steam
  7. Origin of Membranes
    • Phosphate head
    • 2 fatty acid tails
  8. Proto Cell
    Membrane bond enclosed sac of molecules that capture energy, concentrates material , engages in metabolism and replicates itself.
  9. Genetic Material
    Thought that the earliest form of genetic material were RNA, because it functioned as the first molecule that stored genetic code and functioned like an enzyme
  10. Evidence for RNA as first
    • 1) rRNA Catalyze peptide bond formation
    • 11) Ribozymes cut and splice RNA molecules during transcription
  11. History of Life 1
    Accumulation of organic molecules, like lipids, proteins and nucleic acids etc...
  12. History of Life 2
    The first cells made ATP by aerobic pathways
  13. History of Life 3
    Common ancestors of bacteria were, archeans and eukaryotes. (formation of 3 domains)
  14. History of Life 4
    photosynthesis evolved independently in some bacterial and archean groups
  15. History of Life 5
    Origin of endomembrane system, including nuclear envelope developed.
  16. History of Life 6
    Mitochondria developed
  17. History of Life 7
    Later plants, fungi and animals evolved
  18. Pathogen
    Disease causing agent
  19. Virus
    Non- cellular infectious particles that cannot replicate on their own
  20. Inside a virus
    • -You can have a RNA or DNA (heritable material)
    • -Protein Coat
    • -Some have envelope, some do not, this correlates to their method of infecting
  21. Bacteriophages
    Viruses that infect bacteria or archeans. They have a complex structure. Their DNA is located in the "head", protected by a protein coat . They have Sheath and Fiber Tails
  22. Adenovirus
    Are naked (non-enveloped) viruses that infect animals. Their protein coat has a distinctive protein spike @ each corner. (Some infections: Hepatitis, Polio, Common cold, Warts)
  23. Enveloped Viruses
    • Allows recognition. Manipulates, Transcripts and is translational. (Key and Lock)
    • Many have RNA as an internal component
    • (Some infections: Bronchitis, HIV, Rabies, Mumps)
  24. How did Viruses Evolve? 1
    Viruses are descendants of cells that were parasites inside other cells.
  25. How did Viruses Evolve? 2
    Parasites are genetic elements that escaped from cells.
  26. How did Viruses Evolve? 3
    Viruses represent a separate evolutionary branch.
  27. Replication of Viruses with DNA
  28. Replication of Viruses with DNA
    • have 2 life cycles.
    • I. Lytic Pathway
    • II. Lysogenic Pathway
  29. Lytic Pathway
    DNA and some enzymes will insert and manipulate the host immediately, to generate new copies. The virus will replicate, re-assemble and burst out of the cell. (Lysis)
  30. Lysogenic Pathway
    The virus enters the host chromosome, and can sit inactive for an extended period of time. Then replicating and entering the lytic pathway. (only some viruses will take this pathway)
  31. Plasmid
    Circular Bacteria DNA
  32. Replication of Viruses with RNA
    • I. Often have outer compound, protein lipid projection called Keys
    • II. Virus enters the cell and releases RNA into the nucleus, to do reverse TRANSCRIPTION, with reverse TRANSCRIPTASE (enzymes)
    • III. Viral DNA will get integrated into the host cells.
  33. Primary Diff, between Cells and Viruses
    • I. Protein envelope
    • II. Virus can't replicate alone, cells can.
    • III. No organelles
    • IV. Some viruses just have RNA; cells have RNA and DNA
    • V. Viruses are incredibly small.
  34. Similarities between Cells and Viruses
    • I. Carry genetic Material
    • II. Made out of proteins and lipids (organic molecules)
  35. Prokaryotes
    • Simplest forms of life
    • - no nucleus
    • -has great metabolic diversity
  36. Prokaryotic Nutritional Modes
    • 1. Photoautotrophic
    • 2. Chemoautotrophic
    • 3. Photoheterotrophic
    • 4. Chemoheterotrophic
  37. 1. Photoautotrophic
    Use light energy to to build organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water
  38. 2. Chemoautotrophic
    Get energy by removing electrons from inorganic molecules. They use this energy to build organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water. All are Prokaryotes
  39. 3. Photoheterotrophic
    Prokaryotes that use light energy to obtain carbon by breaking down organic compounds in the environment
  40. 4. Chemoheterotrophic
    Get both carbon and energy by breaking down organic compounds. Some protist, and all are animals and fungi.
  41. Prokaryotic Fission + Binary Fission
    A parent cell replicates its single chromosome, and this DNA replica attaches to the plasma membrane adjacent to the parent molecule.(Asexual)
  42. Conjugation
    Involves transfer of plasmid between prokaryotic cells through use of sex pilis.(sexual)
  43. Transformaiton
    Acquiring DNA by taking it up from the environment (Rat experiment with pneumonia strains )