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Based on the idea that all learning and behavior is the result of
The concept of association is the foundation of all learning. We learn by forming associations between ideas.
Herbert Spencer, Evolutionary Associationism
Population grows at exponential rate. Environment at linear. Influenced Darwin
Thomas Malthus, Principle of Overgrowth
A social darwinist, he believed that intelligence must be inherited.
Set up first anthrometric laboratory to study individual's features and appearance as it related to intelligence.
Sir Francis Galton, Psychometric
The teological idea that it is possible to create a race of superior humans over a sufficient span of generations involving controlled, selective breeding (such as used by Nazi's)
Developed factor analysis to break down the intercorrelations between items on an intelligence test, allowing statiticians to break down the intercorrelations among the items and determine how many factors are being measured in a given test
Charles Spearman, Intelligence Testing
Spearman found two factors in IQ tests: this represents a person's overall intelligence, tending to be stable over the lifetime, hereditary factors
General Factor, g (nature)
Spearman found two factors in IQ tests: this Corresponds to specific abilities that can be improved with training, showing not all intelligence is genetically determined. Associated with learning and experience
Ability Factor, s, Doman-Specific (nurture)
a discipline that applies the stimulus-response (S-R) chain to not only animals but humans as well. Allows for direct
comparison between humans and animals with regards to the function of the mind
Argumented against S-R in comparative psychology:
animal psychologist, observed the behavior of animals and noted that sometimes they acted with intentions not unlike humans
George Romanes, Comparative psychology
Whenever an animals seems to act with intent, it’s okay to explain it by assigning a higher cognitive ability (say, human-like thinking) otherwise all animal behavior is by default a simple S-R chain
You can say the animal acted with intent
The philosophy that true ideas are ideas that work, and that have some practical value. Its a way of judging the usefullness of an idea. For James, free will was more practical than determinism. Similar to Ockams Razor
What are the 5 Facts of Consciousness (William James)
- 1.Consciousness is personal
- This is a Rejection of structuralism—everybody witnesses the
- same simple stimulus and there is no personal interpretation
- 2. Consciousness is always changing
- 3. Consciousness is also continuous
- Stream of Consciousness: you can never have the same experience twice (Heraclitus)
- 4. Consciousness is Functional
- 5. Consciousness is Selective
This is an S-O-R approach, believes behavior is not reflexive and we use the rational mind
(Thorndike) Any action followed by a satisfying (functional) consequence is repeated; actions followed by unsatisfying consequences are not repeated
Law of Effect
(Thorndike) The more often the association is made between a response and its consequences, the stronger the association becomes
Law of Use
(Thorndike) The longer the association goes unused, the weaker the association becomes
Law of disuse
Concluded from his experiments (Cat in Box) that a behavioral
response that satisfied a motivation (getting out so they could eat) resulted in an association being form
1st major US psychologist
1st textbook: Principles of psychology
Created the first psychology lab in the US
1st president of the APA, key figure in its founding
1st to publish a psychology journal in English.
Granville Stanley Hall "The Great Organizer"
1st phd with Wundt
Lab at Penn , oldest operating
1st African American with PhD in psychology
Psych program at Howard
1st Woman with PhD in psychology
Margaret Floy Washburn
A reflex which is modified by experience
Conditioned reflex, Ivan Pavlov
A reflex governed by the mind
Physical Reflex Pavlov
The pairing of a conditioned stimulus to an unconditioned stimulus, evoking a conditioned response.
-Neutral (unconditioned) stimuli--does not ordinarily elicit a response.
-paired with response-evoking stimuli (unconditioned stimulus)
-Unconditioned stimuli is no longer neutral--elicits response on its own.
Classical Conditioning, example Pavlov and salivating dog
Influenced by positivism: publicly observable events are scientific.
The goal for psychology for him was to predict and control behavior.
He succeded in demonstrating that there was no distinction b/w humans and animals in terms of behavior. (fear generalized with other other similar objects like a dog, called stimulus generalization)
John Watson, Behaviorism
John Watson and Little Albert Study (proved mind was strictly S-R).
- Loud sound: UCS
- Fear: UCR
- White rat: CS
- Fear: CR
They felt that some psychological constructs (such as learning or intelligence) could be scientific if they could be operationalized
He believed learning occurs through association
He rejecting innate knowledge and freewill and emphasizing the importance of learning.
Argued that learning could occur in one trial despite lack of
performance, goes against Aristotle’s Laws of Frequency and Throndike’s Law of Exercise
Edwin Guthrie- Neobehaviorist
He wanted to demonstrate that learning is more than just responses to stimuli, so he set up an experiment with rats and mazes.
Edward Tolman, Positivist, Neobehaviorist
They felt that a theory was only scientific if it could be empirically verified (demonstrated vs. experiment)
However, allows for theorizing about the data so long as the theoretical construct could be verified experimentally
Scientific Method applied to Psychology
What is the difference between positivism and logical positivism?
- Positivism is the view that only observable data count in science. Theorizing is not allowed because it involves making statements beyond the data.
- Logical positivism allows theorizing based on observable data, as long as the theories can be verified through scientific research.
Learning and performance are the same thing.
Strict S-R approach .
Concerned only with publicly observable events and learning occurs through reinforcement.
Postivism: Scientific Method
Learning is a construct & Performance is an operational definition: something we used to measure amount learned
Allows for S-"O"-R approach
Learning occurs through observation
Kant and Helmholtz believed in top-down structuring, in otherwords, completely subjective experience at the “O” level, based on either innate rational knowledge (categories) or innate
introduced the role of the environment in behavior. Also they were the first to recognize responses to stimuli in the S-O-R chain
felt that all conscious behavior could be reduced to simple S-R chains; all behavior was a result of the stimuli that induced it
He thought that all behavior could be broken down to the level of a tropism, which is behavior directed towards light
Essentially argued that every behavior is an S-R chain.
Mind is not required for animal behavior
He disagreed with Loeb. His argument was that behavior is way too complex and required the mind .He studied simple organisms (protozoa)
The mind is required in most cases . Some mindless reflexes exist, but most behavior is intentional
He removed the cerebrum of cats and then tickled their feet What he noticed is that even without the cerebrum, the reflexes remained intact
Don’t need a mind for responses--S-R
He said that the mind is not really necessary for animal behavior, although it may be required to explain some complex behavior.
The study of information processing systems, and in particular the application of concepts and theories from computer science and information theory to the mind/psychology.
Who :Science proceeds with a dominant paradigm that governs the kinds of experiments that are conducted and the kinds of descriptions that are allowed. Eventually, if the paradigm fails to explain the data that is generated, it will be rejected and replaced by an entirely new set of ideas and descriptions.
Idea that the proper way to understand the human mind is to understand how it is inherently connected to the structure and organization of the brain, and further, how it is shaped by the environment via perception.
Treats the mind as an abstract series of computations, which are not tied to any particular manifestation (brain or computer) nor environment.
information processing approach