P.E

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P.E
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2010-11-10 05:14:15
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Physical Education Definitions
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  1. Long Bones
    • Found in limbs
    • levers for movement
    • greater length than width
    • mostly compact bone

    Tibia, humerus, radius
  2. Short bones
    • Very strong but less movement
    • nearly equal in length and width
    • spongy with an outer layer of hard bone

    phalanges, carpals, tarsals
  3. Flat bones
    • usually thin
    • two layers of compact bone covering a thin layer of spongy bone
    • provide protection
    • large area for muscle attachment
    • cranium, scapula, sternum, ribs
  4. Irregular bones
    • protection and support
    • vertebrae, pubis
  5. What kind of proteins assist in strong bones?
    Calcium and phosphorous
  6. Axial Skeleton
    • rigid supportive structure
    • skull, vertebral column
  7. What are the functions of the skeletal system
    • Support
    • protection
    • movement
    • storage of minerals
    • production of red blood cells
  8. Fibrous joints
    • immoveable
    • tough fibres hold bones together
    • cranium
  9. Cartilagenous joints
    • partly moveable
    • cartilage joins bones together
    • ribs, sternum, vertebrae
  10. Synovial
    • move freely
    • characterised by synovial fluid
    • 6 types of synovial joints
  11. Hinge joint
    • 1 axis
    • only flexion and extension
    • knee, elbow
  12. Gliding joint
    • linear movement
    • surfaces slide against each other
    • intercarpal/tarsal joints, sternum, clavicle
  13. Ovoid
    • bi-axial
    • flexion, extension, abduction, adduction
    • wrist
  14. Saddle joint
    • bi-axial
    • flexion, extension, abduction, adduction
    • base of thumb
  15. Ball and socket
    • movement in any direction
    • shoulder, hip
  16. Pivot joint
    • moves around circular axis
    • neck
  17. Hyaline cartilage
    • white slippery surface at the end of the bones
    • protects bones where it forms a joint
    • reduces friction of the joint
  18. Ligaments
    • strong fibrous tissues
    • join bone to bone
  19. Synovial fluid
    • found inside joint capsule
    • reduces friction
    • lubricates end of bone allowing easier movement
  20. Tendons
    • connect muscle to bone
    • thick strong fibres
  21. cartilage
    • tough, flexible connective tissue
    • no blood or nerve supply of it's own
    • smooth and elastic
    • shock absorption
  22. Skeletal muscles
    • any muscles attatched to skeleton
    • striated appearence
    • voluntary muscle
    • creates movement by pulling on bones to which they are attached
  23. smooth muscles
    • found in digestive system and walls of other vital organs
    • involuntary muscles
  24. Cardiac muscles
    • muscles that control the heart
    • involuntary
  25. anterior
    above or proximal
  26. Inferior
    below or distal
  27. lateral
    further from the midline of the body
  28. medial
    nearer to the midline of the body
  29. reciprocal inhibition
    • when muscles contract or shorten and pull on bones to create movement
    • one muscle contracts to create movement so its partner must stretch to allow the bone to move
  30. agonist
    muscle creating movement
  31. antagonist
    muscle that relaxes and allows the bone to move
  32. example of reciprocal inhibition
    when the bicep muscle pulls upwards on the forearm, the triceps need to relax to allow the movement to occur
  33. isotonic contraction
    change in muscle length
  34. isotonic (concentric)
    muscle shortens
  35. isotonic (eccentric)
    muscle lengthens
  36. isometric contraction
    • creates force without change in muscle length
    • most forceful type of contraction
    • causes muscles to tire quickly
  37. isokinetic contraction
    • forces muscles to work at a constant rate
    • only possible with the use of expensive equipment
  38. Passage of air
    • O2 is breathe in through nasal cavity
    • travels down pharynx, larynx and trachea
    • divides into two bronchi => bronchioles
    • exchange of gases occur in alveoli
    • oxygenated blood is pumped around body
    • CO2 is breathed out lungs
  39. Exchange of gases
    • alveoli allow oxygen breathed in to pass through the microscopically thin walls and into the red blood cells of the capillaries
    • CO2 passes through alveoli and is breathed out through the lungs
  40. vital capacity
    maximum amount of air that you can breathe out after maximum inhalation
  41. tidal volume
    amount of air inspired and expired each breath
  42. residual volume
    the amount of air remaining in the lungs after maximum exhalation
  43. VO2 max
    max amount of oxygen that your body can use over 1 minute
  44. Inspiration
    • breathing in
    • diaphragm contracts and pulls down on rib cage
    • this expands volume of chest
    • air pressure in chest decreases causing air to be sucked in
  45. expiration
    • breathing out
    • occurs when the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax
    • this squeezes the air out of the lungs
  46. breathing rate
    • controlled by the central nervous system
    • brain decides how much oxygen is needed to function properly
  47. sphygmomanometer
    equipment used to measure blood pressure
  48. Q
    • cardiac output
    • amount of blood pumped out each minute
  49. SV
    • stroke volume
    • amount of blood pumped out each beat
  50. HR
    • Heart rate
    • number of heart beats per minute
  51. RR
    • respiration rate
    • amount of breaths per minute
  52. Factors affecting heart rate
    • Sex: females have higher HR
    • age and body size: younger people have higher HR
    • fitness: fitter people have lower HR
    • body position: lying down gives a lower HR
    • food digestion: when digesting food you will have a higher HR
  53. Acute effects of exercise
    • higher cardiac output
    • higher stroke volume
    • higher heart rate
    • higher respiration rate
    • more blood flow to muscles
  54. Chronic effects of excercise
    • higher cardiac output
    • lower stroke volume
    • lower heart rate
    • increased size of left ventricle
    • stronger muscles
    • lower respiration rate
  55. Passage of blood
    • left atrium
    • left ventricle
    • aorta
    • arteries
    • capillaries
    • exchange of gases
    • veins
    • superior/inferior vena cava(s)
    • right atrium
    • right ventricle
    • pulmonary artery
    • lungs
    • exchange of gases
    • pulmonary vein
  56. Blood is made up of
    • Red blood cells
    • white blood cells
    • plasma
    • platelets
  57. Haemoglobin
    • oxygen carrying pigment present in RBCs
    • Carries 02 to body tissue
  58. White blood cells
    • body's defence system
    • fights infection
    • builds up immune system
    • absorb and digest disease causing organisms
  59. Platelets
    cells which help form blood clots
  60. Plasma
    • clear, yellowish fluid
    • carries nutrients to boyd
    • transports waste products
    • 90% water
  61. Types of pulse
    • Radial pulse (wrist)
    • carotid pulse (neck)
    • femoral pulse (groin)
    • temporal pulse (temple)

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