AP%20Biology.csv

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AP%20Biology.csv
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  1. matter
    anything takes up space and has mass
  2. compound
    substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio
  3. element
    any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance
  4. trace elements
    an element indispensable for life but required in extremely minimum amounts
  5. atom
    smallest unit of matter that retains property of an element
  6. neutron
    an electrically neutral particle found in the nucleus of an atom
  7. proton
    a subatomic particle with single positive charge found in nucleus of an atom
  8. electron
    a subatomic particle with a single negative charge; one or more electrons move around the nucleus
  9. isotopes
    one of several atomic forms of an element each containing different number of neutrons and different in atomic mass
  10. valence electrons
    the electrons in the outermost electron shell
  11. chemical bonds
    an attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atom; the bonded atoms gain compounds outer electron shells
  12. covalent bonds
    a type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one pair of valence electrons
  13. polar covalent bonds
    a type of covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. the shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom. making one slightly negative and the other slightly positive
  14. electronegativity
    the attraction of an atom for the electrons of a covalent bond
  15. anion
    a negatively charged ion
  16. cation
    an ion with a positive charge produced by the loss of one or more electrons
  17. hydrogen bond
    a type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecules is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent in another bond
  18. cohesion
    the binding together of like molecules often by hydrogen bonds
  19. adhesion
    the attraction between different kinds of molecules
  20. surface tension
    a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
  21. heat
    total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter. It is energy in most random form
  22. temperature
    a measure of the intensity of heat in degrees reflecting molecules average kinetic energy
  23. specific heat
    the amount of heat that must be absorbed lost for one gram of a substance to change its temperature by one degree
  24. solution
    a homogeneous mixture of two or more substance (liquid)
  25. solvent
    dissolving agent of a solution
  26. solute
    a substance that is dissolved in a solution
  27. aqueous solution
    a solution in which water is the solvent
  28. acid
    a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
  29. base
    a substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
  30. hydrophilic
    having an affinity to water
  31. hydrophobic
    having aversion to water tend to coalesce and form droplets of water
  32. pH
    A measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to –log [H+] and ranging in value from 0 to 14.
  33. buffers
    A substance that consists of acid and base forms in a solution and that minimizes changes in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution.
  34. acid precipitation
    "Rain
  35. organic chemistry
    The study of carbon compounds (organic compounds).
  36. hydrocarbons
    An organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen.
  37. isomers
    "One of several organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and therefore different properties. The three types are structural
  38. structural isomers
    Compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.
  39. geometric isomers
    Compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the spatial arrangements of their atoms.
  40. enantiomers
    Molecules that are mirror images of each other.
  41. functional groups
    A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.
  42. hydroxyl groups
    A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
  43. carbonyl groups
    A functional group present in aldehydes and ketones and consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom.
  44. aldehyde
    An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.
  45. ketone
    An organic compound with a carbonyl group of which the carbon atom is bonded to two other carbons.
  46. carboxyl group
    A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
  47. amino group
    "A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution
  48. sulfhydryl group
    A functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (—SH).
  49. phosphate group
    A functional group important in energy transfer.
  50. macromolecule
    "A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules
  51. polymer
    A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
  52. monomer
    The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
  53. condensation reaction
    "A reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule
  54. dehydration reaction
    A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
  55. hydrolysis
    "A chemical process that lyses
  56. carbohydrates
    A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides).
  57. monosaccharides
    "The simplest carbohydrate
  58. disaccharides
    "A double sugar
  59. starch
    A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.
  60. glycogen
    An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
  61. cellulose
    "A structural polysaccharide of cell walls
  62. fatty acid
    A long carbon chain carboxylic acid. vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form fat.
  63. saturated fatty acid
    "A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds
  64. unsaturated fatty acid
    A fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.
  65. phospholipids
    "A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes
  66. cholesterol
    A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.
  67. steroids
    A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached.
  68. polysaccharides
    "A polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides
  69. glycosidic linkage
    A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
  70. fat
    constructed from glycerol and fatty acids
  71. amino acid
    An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino acids serve as the monomers of proteins.
  72. protein
    A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids.
  73. peptide bond
    "The covalent bond between two amino acid units
  74. beta (B) pleated sheet
    "One form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds back and forth
  75. denaturation
    "For proteins
  76. RNA
    "A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A)
  77. DNA
    "A double-stranded
  78. nucleic acid
    "A polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and
  79. purines
    One of two families of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Adenine (A) and guanine (G) are purines.
  80. pyrimidines
    "One of two families of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Cytosine (C)
  81. organelles
    "One of several formed bodies with specialized functions
  82. electron microscope
    "A microscope that focuses an electron beam through a specimen
  83. cell fractionation
    The disruption of a cell and separation of its organelles by centrifugation.
  84. ultra centrifuges
    A machine that spins test tubes at the fastest speeds to separate liquids and particles of different densities.
  85. cytosol
    The semifluid portion of the cytoplasm.
  86. prokaryotic cell
    A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
  87. nucleoid
    A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell.
  88. cytoplasm
    "The entire contents of the cell
  89. plasma membrane
    "The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier
  90. nucleus
    "(1) An atom's central core
  91. nuclear lamina
    A netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus.
  92. chromatin
    "The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing
  93. food vacuoles
    A membranous sac formed by phagocytosis.
  94. contractile vacuoles
    A membranous sac that helps move excess water out of the cell.
  95. plastids
    "One of a family of closely related plant organelles
  96. central vacuole
    "A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction
  97. tonoplast
    "A membrane that encloses the central vacuole in a plant cell
  98. mitochondria
    An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration.
  99. chloroplasts
    An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
  100. cristae
    "(plural
  101. thylakoids
    "A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast
  102. grana
    A stacked portion of the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast. Grana function in the light reactions of photosynthesis
  103. stroma
    The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
  104. peroxisome
    "A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen
  105. cytoskeleton
    "A network of microtubules
  106. centrosome
    "Material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells
  107. flagella
    "A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
  108. cilia
    "A short cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
  109. actin
    "A globular protein that links into chains
  110. cell wall
    "A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells
  111. extracellular matrix
    The substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded consisting of protein and polysaccharides.
  112. collagen
    "A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers
  113. chromosomes
    "A threadlike
  114. nucleolus
    "A specialized structure in the nucleus
  115. ribosomes
    "A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of rRNA and protein molecules
  116. smooth ER
    That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes.
  117. Rough ER
    That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes.
  118. endoplasmic reticulum
    "An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells
  119. glycoproteins
    A protein covalently attached to a carbohydrate.
  120. golgi apparatus
    "An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify
  121. transport vesicles
    A tiny membranous sac in a cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell.
  122. lysosomes
    A membrane-enclosed bag of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
  123. phagocytosis
    "A type of endocytosis involving large
  124. selective permeability
    (the ability to allow some sub. to cross the plasma membrane more easily) A property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.
  125. fluid mosaic model
    "The currently accepted model of cell membrane structure
  126. integral proteins
    Typically transmembrane proteins with hydrophobic regions that completely span the hydrophobic interior of the membrane.
  127. peripheral proteins
    Protein appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane and not embedded in the lipid bilayer.
  128. diffusion
    The spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from a more concentrated to a less concentrated area.
  129. concentration gradient
    "An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes. When a gradient exists
  130. passive transport
    The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane
  131. hypertonic
    "In comparing two solutions
  132. hypotonic
    "In comparing two solutions
  133. isotonic
    Having the same solute concentration as another solution.
  134. osmoregulation
    "The control of water balance in organisms living in hypertonic
  135. osmosis
    The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
  136. turgid
    Firm. Walled cells become turgid as a result of the entry of water from a hypotonic environment.
  137. flaccid
    "Limp. Walled cells are limp in isotonic surroundings
  138. plasmolysis
    A phenomenon in walled cells in which the cytoplasm shrivels and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall when the cell loses water to a hypertonic environment
  139. facilitated diffusion
    "The spontaneous passage of molecules and ions
  140. aquaporins
    (water channel proteins that facilitate the amount of diffusion)A transport protein in the plasma membrane of a plant or animal cell that specifically facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane (osmosis).
  141. gated channels
    A protein channel in a cell membrane that opens or closes in response to a particular stimulus.
  142. active transport
    The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins.
  143. sodium potassium pump
    A special transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell against their concentration gradients.
  144. electrochemical gradient
    "The diffusion gradient of an ion
  145. proton pump
    "An active transport mechanism in cell membranes that consumes ATP to force hydrogen ions out of a cell and
  146. cotransport
    "The coupling of the ""downhill"" diffusion of one substance to the ""uphill"" transport of another against its own concentration gradient."
  147. exocytosis
    The cellular secretion of macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.
  148. endocytosis
    The cellular uptake of macromolecules and particulate substances by localized regions of the plasma membrane that surround the substance and pinch off to form an intracellular vesicle.
  149. phagocytosis
    "A type of endocytosis involving large
  150. pinocytosis
    A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
  151. ligands
    A molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.
  152. receptor mediated endocytosis
    The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in; enables a cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances.
  153. electrogenic pump
    An ion transport protein generating voltage across the membrane.
  154. nucleus
    "chromatin
  155. chromatin
    organization of DNA and proteins into fibrous material
  156. nucleolus
    "specialized structure in special type of RNA
  157. nuclear envelope
    double membrane perforated by pores which regulate entry and exit of certain macromolecules and particles
  158. ribosomes
    "use info
  159. free ribosomes
    suspended in cytosol which will function in cytosol (ex:enzymes)
  160. bound ribosomes
    attached to outside of ER or nuclear envelope- proteins that are destined for insertion into membranes or packaging certain organelles (ex: lysosome)
  161. endoplasmic reticulum
    network of membrane sacs and tubes; active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes
  162. smooth ER
    "synthesis of lipids
  163. rough ER
    sythesis of secretory proteins (glycoproteins) specialized cells secrete proteins produced by rough ER ribosomes and membrane production
  164. golgi apparatus
    "center of manufacturing
  165. cis face
    "golgi appartus--> usually located near the ER a vesicle that buds from the ER will add its membrane and the contents of its lumen
  166. trans face
    golgi apparatus--> gives rise to vesicles which pinch off and travel to other sites
  167. lysosomes
    digestive compartments (macromolecules) carry out intracellular digestion . Use their hydrolytic enzymes to recycle the cell's own organic material (autophagy)
  168. mitochondria
    "sites of cellular respiration the catbolic process that generates ATP by extracting energy from sugars
  169. chloroplast
    sites of photosynthesis. convert solar energy--> chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from CO2 and H20
  170. peroxisomes
    generate and degrade H2O2 in performing various metabolic functions transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen and they produce H2O2. Use O to break fatty acids that can be sent to mitochondria
  171. cytoskeleton
    organizing the structures and activities of cells
  172. microtubules
    maintenance of cell shape (compression resisting girders) cell motility organelle and chromosome movement
  173. microfilaments
    actin (tension bearing elements ) muscle contraction
  174. intermediate filaments
    "anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelles
  175. centrosomes
    region where cells microtubules are initiated
  176. centrioles
    composed of nine sets of triplet microtubule arrange in a ring
  177. ECM
    "function in support
  178. tight junctions
    membranes of neighboring cells are actually fused forming continuous belts around cell to prevent leakage of extracellular fluid
  179. desmosome
    function like rivets fastening cells together into strong sheets Intermediate filaments reinforce this
  180. gap junctions
    provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent animal cells
  181. amphipathic molecules
    Amphipathic molecules have both hydrophobic regions and hydrophilic regions .
  182. fluid mosaic model
    The arrangement of phospholipids and proteins in biological membranes is described by the
  183. freeze-fracture
    "splits a membrane along the middle of the phospholipid bilayer. When a freeze-fracture preparation is viewed with an electron microscope
  184. Peripheral proteins
    "are not embedded in the lipid bilayer at all. Instead
  185. Integral proteins
    "penetrate the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer
  186. functions of the proteins
    "1. Transport of specific solutes into or out of cells. 2. Enzymatic activity
  187. Cell-cell recognition
    the ability of a cell to distinguish one type of neighboring cell from another is crucial to the functioning of an organism carbohydrates are important for this
  188. transport proteins
    span the membrane 1. channel proteins which have a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or ions can use as a tunnel through the membrane (aquaporins facilitate the passage of water through the membrane) 2. carrier proteins bind to molecules and change shape to shuttle them across the membrane
  189. diffusion
    the tendency of molecules of any substance to spread out in the available space it is driven by intrinsic kinetic energy (thermal motion or heat) of molecules
  190. passive transport
    the diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane because it require no energy from the cell to make it happen - the concentration gradient represents potential energy and drives fusion
  191. concentration gradient
    an increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area -->substances tend to move form where there are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated
  192. osmosis
    the passive transport of water; diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane; the direction of osmosis is determined only by a difference in total solute concentration ; the kind of solutes in the solution do not matter
  193. facilitated diffusion
    the passive movement of molecules down their concentration gradient via transport proteins
  194. gated channels
    many ion channels function as gated channels these channels open or close depending on the presence or absence of a chemical or physical stimulus
  195. active transport
    uses energy to move solutes against their gradients; requires the cell to expend metabolic energy; enables a cell to maintain its internal concentrations of small molecules that would otherwise diffuse across he membrane ; ATP supplies the energy for active transport
  196. ATP
    ATP can power active transport by transferring a phosphate group from ATP to the transport protein. This may induce a conformation change in the transport proteins translocating the solute across the membrane
  197. sodium potassium pump
    actively maintains the gradient of sodium ions (Na+) and potassium ions (K+) across the plasma membrane of animal cells . K+ concentration is low outside animal cell and high inside the cell. Na+ concentration is high outside an animal cell and low inside the cell. the sodium potassium pump maintains these concentration gradients using the energy of one ATP to pump three Na+ out and two K+ in
  198. voltage
    electrical potential energy due to the separation of opposite charges
  199. membrane potential
    voltage across a membrane. ranges from -50 to -200 millivolts. inside of cell negative compared to the outside
  200. electrochemical gradient
    drive the diffusion of ions across a membrane 1. chemical force based on an ions concentration gradient. 2. the other is an electrical force based on the effect of the membrane potential on the ion's movement ion diffuses down its electrochemical gradient
  201. electrogenic pumps
    special transport proteins that generate the voltage gradient across a membrane an example is the Na+-K+ pump restores the electrochemical gradient not only by the active transport of Na+ and K+ setting up a concentration gradien but because it pumps 2 K+ for every 3 Na+ setting up a voltage across membrane
  202. proton pump
    in plants bacteria and fungi it is the major electrogenic pump actively transporting H+ out of the cell
  203. cotransport
    a single ATP powered pump that transports one solute can indirectly drive the active transport of several other solutes in this mechanism as the solute that has been actively transported diffuses back passively through a transport protein its movement can be coupled with the active transport of another substance against its concentration gradient
  204. phagocytosis
    the cell engulfs a particle by extending psedopodia around it and packaging it in a large vacuole
  205. pinocytosis
    a cell creates a vesicle around a droplet of extracellular fluid
  206. thermodynamics
    (1) The study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter. See first law of thermodynamics and second law of thermodynamics. (2) A phenomenon in which external DNA is taken up by a cell and functions there.
  207. 1st law of thermodynamics
    "The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed
  208. 2nd law of thermodynamics
    "The principle whereby every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. Ordered forms of energy are at least partly converted to heat
  209. entropy
    "A quantitative measure of disorder or randomness
  210. free energy
    The portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature is uniform throughout the system.
  211. exergonic reaction
    A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy
  212. endergonic reaction
    A nonspontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings
  213. ATP
    An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells.
  214. energy coupling
    "In cellular metabolism
  215. phospholipid
    "A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes
  216. catalyst
    A chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
  217. activation energy
    The amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start.
  218. substrate
    The reactant on which an enzyme works
  219. competitive inhibitor
    A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics.
  220. noncompetitive inhibitor
    "A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site
  221. active site
    The specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds.
  222. induced fit
    "The change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate
  223. cofactor
    Any nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme can be permanently bound to the active site or may bind loosely with the substrate during catalysis.
  224. coenzyme
    An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function in important metabolic reactions.
  225. allosteric site
    A specific receptor site on some part of an enzyme molecule remote from the active site.
  226. feedback inhibition
    A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.
  227. fermentation
    "A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product
  228. cellular respiration
    "The most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP
  229. redox reactions
    A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction
  230. oxidation
    The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.
  231. reduction
    The addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction.
  232. reducing agent
    The electron donor in a redox reaction.
  233. oxidizing agent
    The electron acceptor in a redox reaction.
  234. NaD+
    a coenzyme present in all cells that helps enzymes transfer electrons during the redox reactions of metabolism
  235. electron transport chain
    A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
  236. glycolysis
    "The splitting of glucose into pyruvate. Glycolysis is the one metabolic pathway that occurs in all living cells
  237. krebs Cycle
    A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration.
  238. Oxidative Phosphorylation
    The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain.
  239. Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
    The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
  240. Acetyl CoA
    The entry compound for the Krebs cycle in cellular respiration; formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.
  241. Cytochrome
    "An iron-containing protein
  242. ATP synthase
    "A cluster of several membrane proteins found in the mitochondrial crista (and bacterial plasma membrane) that function in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains
  243. proton motive force
    "The potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient
  244. aerobic
    "Containing oxygen; referring to an organism
  245. anaerobic
    "Lacking oxygen; referring to an organism
  246. alcohol fermentation
    The conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.
  247. lactid acid fermentation
    The conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of carbon dioxide.
  248. faculative anaerobes
    An organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions.
  249. beta oxidation
    A metabolic sequence that breaks fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments which enter the Krebs cycle as acetyl CoA.
  250. autotrophs
    An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms or substances derived from other organisms. Autotrophs use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones.
  251. heterotrophs
    An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products.
  252. chlorophyll
    "A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants. Chlorophyll a can participate directly in the light reactions
  253. stroma
    The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
  254. light reactions
    "The steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH
  255. calvin cycle
    "The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions)
  256. NADP+
    An acceptor that temporarily stores energized electrons produced during the light reactions.
  257. photophosphorylation
    The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
  258. wavelength
    "The distance between crests of waves
  259. electromagnetic spectrum
    The entire spectrum of radiation ranging in wavelength from less than a nanometer to more than a kilometer.
  260. visible light
    "That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum detected as various colors by the human eye
  261. protons
    "A quantum
  262. spectrophotometer
    An instrument that measures the proportions of light of different wavelengths absorbed and transmitted by a pigment solution.
  263. absorption spectrum
    The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelengths of light.
  264. chlorophyll A
    A type of blue-green photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions.
  265. chlorophyll B
    A type of yellow-green accessory photosynthetic pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a.
  266. action spectrum
    A profile of the relative performance of different wavelengths of light.
  267. carotenoids
    "An accessory pigment
  268. reaction center
    "The chlorophyll a molecule and the primary electron acceptor in a photosystem; they trigger the light reactions of photosynthesis. The chlorophyll donates an electron
  269. primary electron acceptor
    A specialized molecule sharing the reaction center with the chlorophyll a molecule; it accepts an electron from the chlorophyll a molecule.
  270. photosystem I
    One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P700 reaction-center chlorophyll.
  271. photosystem II
    One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P680 reaction-center chlorophyll.
  272. noncyclic electron flow
    "A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves both photosystems and produces ATP
  273. bundle sheath cell
    A type of photosynthetic cell arranged into tightly packed sheaths around the veins of a leaf.
  274. mesophyll cell
    A loosely arranged photosynthetic cell located between the bundle sheath and the leaf surface.
  275. CAM
    "A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism
  276. noncyclic phosphorylation
    The production of ATP by noncyclic electron flow.
  277. cyclic electron flow
    A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves only photosystem I and that produces ATP but not NADPH or oxygen
  278. cyclic photophosphorylation
    The generation of ATP by cyclic electron flow.
  279. rubisco
    "Ribulose carboxylase
  280. C3 plants
    "A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material
  281. photorespiration
    "A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen
  282. C4 plants
    "A plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into four-carbon compounds
  283. cell division
    reproduction of cells
  284. cell cycle
    "sequence of events in the life of a cell
  285. genome
    complete complement of organisms genes; genetic material
  286. chromosomes
    gene carrying structure found in nucleus- consists of 1 very long DNA molecules and associated proteins
  287. somatic cells
    any cell in multicellular organism except an egg or sperm
  288. gametes
    sex cells (haploid cells; egg or sperm) unite to form a diploid zygote
  289. chromatin
    complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome
  290. sister chromatids
    replicated forms of chromosomes joined together by the centromere and separated during mitosis and meiosis II
  291. centromere
    centralized region that joins the two sister chromatids
  292. mitosis
    "nuclear division process; prophase
  293. cytokenisis
    the division of the cytoplasm to form two seperate daughter cells after mitosis
  294. meiosis
    a two stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organims that results in cells with half the chromosomes number of the original cells
  295. mitotoic phase
    phase of cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokenisis
  296. interphase
    "period when cell cycle when cell is not dividing- cell metabolic activity is high
  297. G1 phase
    "first growth phase of the cell cycle
  298. G2 phase
    the second growth face of the cell cycle consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs
  299. S phase
    synthesis phase of cell cycle; portion of interphase which DNA is replicated
  300. prophase
    the first subphase of mitosis in which the chromatin is condensing and the mitotic spindle begins to form but the nucleolus and nucleus are still in intact
  301. cell plate
    a double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell between which the new cell wall forms during cytokenisis
  302. prometaphase
    "The second subphase of mitosis
  303. metaphase
    3rd subphase in mitosis; spindle is complete and the chromosomes attached to microtubules at their kinetochores are aligned at he metaphase plate
  304. anaphase
    fourth subphase of mitosis in which the chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell
  305. telophase
    the fifth and final subphase of mitosis in which daughter nuclei are forming and cytokenisis actually begins
  306. mitotic spindle
    an assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis
  307. kinetochore
    a specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle
  308. binary fission
    prokaryotes cell division . Each daughter cell receives a copy of the single parental chromosome
  309. cleavage
    cytokenisis process; pinching of the plasma membrane; the succession of rapid cell division without growth during early embryonic development that converts the zygote into a ball of cell
  310. cell cycle control system
    a cyclically operating set of molecultes in the cell that triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle
  311. G0 phase
    a non dividing face of the cell cycle consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins
  312. cyclin
    a regularity protein whose concentration fluctuates cyclically
  313. growth factor
    a protein that must be present in the extracellular environment for the growth and normal development of certain types of cells
  314. density dependent inhibitor
    any factor that has a greater impact on a population as the population increases
  315. transformation
    the conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell.
  316. tumor
    "a mass of abnormal cells within otherwise normal tissue
  317. benign tumor
    a mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of origin
  318. malignant tumor
    cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair function of one or more organs
  319. metastasis
    the spread of cancer to locations distant form original site
  320. genes
    "A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA
  321. heredity
    The transmission of traits from one generation to the next.
  322. variation
    Differences between members of the same species.
  323. genetics
    The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation.
  324. asexual reproduction
    A type of reproduction involving only one parent that produces genetically identical offspring by budding or by the division of a single cell or the entire organism into two or more parts.
  325. sexual reproduction
    A type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the gametes of the two parents.
  326. clone
    "(1) A lineage of genetically identical individuals or cells. (2) In popular usage
  327. life cycle
    The generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism.
  328. somatic cell
    Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell.
  329. karyotype
    "A method of organizing the chromosomes of a cell in relation to number
  330. homologous chromosomes
    "Chromosome pairs of the same length
  331. crossing over
    The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I.
  332. sex chromosomes
    One of the pair of chromosomes responsible for determining the sex of an individual
  333. gametes
    A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
  334. haploid cells
    A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
  335. fertilization
    The union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote.
  336. diploid cells
    "A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n)
  337. meiosis
    A two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell.
  338. alternation of generations
    "A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form
  339. sporophyte
    The multicellular diploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that results from a union of gametes and that meiotically produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation.
  340. gametophyte
    The multicellular haploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation.
  341. synapsis
    The pairing of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis.
  342. tetrad
    "A paired set of homologous chromosomes
  343. chiasmata
    "The X-shaped
  344. character
    A heritable feature.
  345. trait
    A characteristic
  346. true breeding
    Plants that produce offspring of the same variety when they self-pollinate.
  347. hybridization
    "The mating
  348. P. generation
    The parent individuals from which offspring are derived in studies of inheritance; P stands for parental.
  349. F1 generation
    "The first filial
  350. F2 generation
    Offspring resulting from interbreeding of the hybrid F1 generation.
  351. dominant allele
    "In a heterozygote
  352. recessive allele
    "In a heterozygote
  353. codominance
    "A phenotypic situation in which the two alleles affect the phenotype in separate
  354. complete dominance
    A type of inheritance in which the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable.
  355. law of segregration
    "Mendel's first law
  356. punnett square
    A diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the results of random fertilization.
  357. homozygous
    Having two identical alleles for a given trait.
  358. heterozygous
    Having two different alleles for a given genetic character
  359. phenotype
    The physical and physiological traits of an organism.
  360. genotype
    The genetic makeup of an organism
  361. monohybrids
    "An organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest. A monohybrid results from a cross between parents homozygous for different alleles. For example
  362. law of independent assortment
    "Mendel's second law
  363. incomplete dominance
    A type of inheritance in which F1 hybrids have an appearance that is intermediate between the phenotypes of the parental varieties
  364. pleiotropy
    The ability of a single gene to have multiple effects.
  365. epistasis
    A phenomenon in which one gene alters the expression of another gene that is independently inherited
  366. quantitive characters
    A heritable feature in a population that varies continuously as a result of environmental influences and the additive effect of two or more genes (polygenic inheritance).
  367. polygenic inheritance
    An additive effect of two or more gene loci on a single phenotypic character.
  368. pedigree
    A family tree describing the occurrence of heritable characters in parents and offspring across as many generations as possible.
  369. cystic fibrosis
    A genetic disorder that occurs in people with two copies of a certain recessive allele; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consequent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated.
  370. sickle cell anemia
    A human genetic disease of red blood cells caused by the substitution of a single amino acid in the hemoglobin protein; it is the most common inherited disease among African Americans.
  371. amniocentesis
    "A technique for determining genetic abnormalities in a fetus by the presence of certain chemicals or defective fetal cells in the amniotic fluid
  372. chromosome theory of inheritance
    A basic principle in biology stating that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns.
  373. wild type
    An individual with the normal phenotype.
  374. sex linked genes
    A gene located on a sex chromosome.
  375. duchenne muscular dystropy
    A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by progressive weakening and a loss of muscle tissue.
  376. linked genes
    Genes that are located on the same chromosome.
  377. genetic recombination
    The general term for the production of offspring with new combinations of traits inherited from the two parents.
  378. parental types
    Offspring with a phenotype that matches one of the parental phenotypes.
  379. linkage map
    "A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes. The greater the frequency of recombination between two genetic markers
  380. cytological maps
    Charts of chromosomes that locate genes with respect to chromosomal features.
  381. hemophilia
    "A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele
  382. nondisjunction
    "An accident of meiosis or mitosis
  383. trisomic
    "A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has an extra copy of one chromosome
  384. monosomic
    "A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has only one copy of a chromosome
  385. polyploidy
    A chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets.
  386. duplication
    An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from an error in meiosis or mutagens; duplication of a portion of a chromosome resulting from fusion with a fragment from a homologous chromosome.
  387. inversion
    "An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from an error in meiosis or from mutagens; specifically
  388. barr body
    "A dense object lying along the inside of the nuclear envelope in female mammalian cells
  389. transformation
    (1) The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell. (2) A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
  390. bacteriophage
    A virus that infects bacteria; also called a phage. See phage.
  391. double helix
    "The form of native DNA
  392. origins replication
    Sites where the replication of a DNA molecule begins.
  393. RNA polymerase
    An enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription.
  394. leading strand
    The new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' 3' direction.
  395. lagging strand
    A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork.
  396. DNA ligase
    A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 39 end of a new DNA fragment to the 59 end of a growing chain.
  397. primer
    An already existing RNA chain bound to template DNA to which DNA nucleotides are added during DNA synthesis.
  398. helicase
    An enzyme that untwists the double helix of DNA at the replication forks.
  399. nuclease
    A team of enzymes that hydrolyze DNA and RNA into their component nucleotides
  400. mismatch repair
    The cellular process that uses special enzymes to fix incorrectly paired nucleotides.
  401. replication fork
    A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
  402. telomeres
    "The protective structure at each end of a eukaryotic chromosome. Specifically
  403. transcription
    The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template.
  404. mRNA
    "A type of RNA
  405. translation
    "The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of ""language"" from nucleotides to amino acids"
  406. RNA processing
    "Modification of RNA before it leaves the nucleus
  407. primary transcript
    An initial RNA transcript; also called pre-mRNA.
  408. triplet code
    A set of three-nucleotide-long words that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains.
  409. template strand
    The DNA strand that provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript.
  410. codons
    A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
  411. promoter
    A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA.
  412. terminator
    "A special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene. It signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule
  413. transcription unit
    "unit
  414. RNA splicing
    The removal of noncoding portions (introns) of the RNA molecule after initial synthesis.
  415. introns
    "A noncoding
  416. exons
    "A coding region of a eukaryotic gene. Exons
  417. spliceosome
    "A complex assembly that interacts with the ends of an RNA intron in splicing RNA
  418. ribosomes
    "A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of rRNA and protein molecules
  419. domains
    "A taxonomic category above the kingdom level. The three domains are Archaea
  420. transfer RNA
    An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA.
  421. anticodon
    A specialized base triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule.
  422. ribosomal RNA
    "The most abundant type of RNA
  423. polyribosomes
    An aggregation of several ribosomes attached to one messenger RNA molecule.
  424. point mutation
    A change in a gene at a single nucleotide pair
  425. base pair substitution
    A point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner in the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides.
  426. missense mutations
    "The most common type of mutation
  427. frameshift mutation
    "A mutation occurring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three
  428. insertion
    A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene.
  429. deletion
    (1) A deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through breakage. (2) A mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene.
  430. mutagens
    A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
  431. capsid
    "The protein shell that encloses a viral genome. It may be rod-shaped
  432. viral envelope
    A membrane that cloaks the capsid that in turn encloses a viral genome.

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