Medical Terminology OFT 140

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Medical Terminology OFT 140
2010-11-10 15:47:49
Chapter Fourteen Gastrointestinal System

Symptomatic & Diagnostic Terms
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  1. Anorexia
    • loss of appetite
    • - (orexia= appetite)
  2. Aphagia
    inability to swallow
  3. Ascites
    • accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
    • - (ascos= bag)
  4. Buccal
    in the cheek
  5. Dyspepsia
    • indigestion
    • - (peptein= to digest)
  6. Dysphagia
    difficulty swallowing
  7. Eructation
  8. Halitosis
    • bad breath
    • - (halitus= breath)
  9. Hematochezia
    • red blood in the stool
    • - (chezo= defecate)
  10. Hematemesis
    vomiting blood
  11. Hepatomegaly
    enlargement of the liver
  12. Hyperbilirubinemia
    excessive level of bilirubin (bile pigment) in the blood
  13. Icterus
    yellow discoloration of the skin, sclera (white of the eye), &other tissues caused by excessive bilirubin in the blood
  14. Melena
    dark-colored, tarry stool caused by old blood
  15. Steatorrhea
    feces containing fat
  16. Sublingual
    under the tongue
  17. Hypoglossal
    under the tongue
  18. Stomatitis
    inflammation of the mouth
  19. Sialoadenitis
    inflammation of the salivary glands
  20. Parotitis
    • inflammation of the parotid gland
    • - mumps
  21. Cheilitis
    inflammation of the lip
  22. Glossitis
    inflammation of the tongue
  23. Ankyloglossia
    • - tongue-tie
    • - a defect of the tongue characterized by a short, thick frenulum
    • - (ankyl/o= crooked or stiff)
  24. Gingivitis
    inflammation of the gums
  25. Esophageal Varices
    swollen, twisted veins in the esophagus especially susceptible to ulcerations & hemorrhage
  26. Esophagitis
    inflammation of the esophagus
  27. Gastritis
    inflammation of the stomach
  28. Gastroesophageal Reflux disease (GERD)
    • backflow of stomach contents into the esophagus
    • - often due to: abnormal function of the lower esophageal sphincter
    • - signs/symptoms: burning pain in the esophagus
  29. Pyloric Stenosis
    narrowed condition of the pylorus
  30. Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)
    • a sore on the mucous membrane of the stomach, duodenum, or any other part of the gastrointestinal system exposed to gastric juices
    • - common cause: infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria
    • - 2 types: gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer
  31. Gastroenteritis
    inflammation of the stomach & small intestine
  32. Enteritis
    inflammation of the small intestine
  33. Ileitis
    inflammation of the lower portion of the small intestine
  34. Colitis
    inflammation of the colon (large intestine)
  35. Ulcerative Colitis
    chronic inflammation of the colon along with ulcerations
  36. Diverticulum
    • - a by-way
    • - an abnormal side pocket in the gastrointestinal tract
    • - usually due to: lack of dietary fiber
  37. Diverticulosis
    presence of a diverticula in th gastrointestinal tract, especially in the bowel
  38. Diverticulitis
    Inflammation of the diverticula
  39. Dysentery
    • inflammation of the intestine characterized by frequent, bloody stools
    • - most often caused by: bacteria or protozoa
  40. Appendicitis
    inflammation of the appendix
  41. Hernia
    (5 Types)
    • protrusion of a part from its normal location
    • - 5 types: hiatal, inguinal, incarcerated, strangulated, umbilical
  42. Intussusception
    • prolapse of one part of the intestine into the lumen of the adjoining part
    • - (intus= within; suscipiens= to take up)
  43. Volvulus
    • twisting of the bowel on itself
    • - causes obstruction
  44. Polyposis
    multiple polyps in the intestine & rectum with a high malignancy potential
  45. Polyp
    tumor or stalk
  46. Proctitis
    inflammation of the rectum & anus
  47. Anal Fistula
    • abnormal tube-like passageway from the anus that may connect with the rectum
    • - (fistula= pipe)
  48. Hemorrhoid
    • swollen, twisted vein (varicosity) in the anal region
    • - (haimorrhois= a vein likely to bleed)
  49. Peritonitis
    inflammation of the peritoneum
  50. Hepatitis
    (3 Types)
    • inflammation the the liver
    • - 3 types: A, B, C
  51. Hepatitis A
    • infectious inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV)
    • - usually transmitted: orally through fecal contamination or water
  52. Hepatitis B
    • infectious inflammation of the live caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV)
    • - transmitted: sexually or by exposure to contaminated blood or bloody fluids
  53. Hepatitis C
    • inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV)
    • - transmitted by: exposure to infected blood (rarely sexually)
  54. Cirrhosis
    • chronic disease characterized by degeneration of liver tissue
    • - most often caused by: alcoholism or nutritional deficiency
  55. Cholangitis
    inflammation of the bile ducts
  56. Cholecystitis
    inflammation of the gallbladder
  57. Cholelithiasis
    presence of stones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
  58. Choledocholithiasis
    presence of stones in the common bile duct
  59. Pancreatitis
    inflammation of the pancreas