ABSITE ch 42 orthopedics.txt

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ABSITE ch 42 orthopedics.txt
2010-01-23 18:39:21
orthopedics ABSITE

ABSITE ch 42 orthopedics
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  1. Cells that synthesize nonmineralized bone cortex
  2. Cells that reabsorb bone
  3. Stages of bone healing (4)
    Inflammation, soft callus formation, mineralization of callus, removal of callus
  4. Salter-Harris fractures that cross epiphyseal plate (and thus need ORIF)
    III, IV and V
  5. Salter-Harris fractures that do not cross epiphyseal plates (and need only closed reduction)
    I and II
  6. Fractures associated with AVN (3)
    Scaphoid, femoral neck, talus
  7. Fractures associated with nonunion (2)
    Clavicle, 5th metatarsal (Jones fracture)
  8. Fractures associated with compartment syndrome (2)
    Supracondylar humerus, tibia
  9. Biggest risk factor for nonunion
  10. Nerve for hip adduction
    Obturator nerve
  11. Nerve for hip abduction
    Superior gluteal nerve
  12. Nerve for knee extension
    Femoral nerve
  13. Portion of disc that herniates
    Nucleus pulposis
  14. Nerve root that causes weak hip flexion when compressed
  15. Nerve root that causes weak knee extension and weak patellar reflex when compressed
  16. Nerve root that causes weak dorsiflexion and dec sensation to big toe when compressed
  17. Nerve root that causes weak plantarflexion and weak Achilles reflex when compressed
  18. Treatment of lumbar disc herniation
    NSAIDS, heat, rest, surgery (if progressive neuro deficit, refractory symptoms, severe sciatica, or herniated fragments)
  19. Motor to intrinsic hand muscles
    Ulnar nerve
  20. Sensory to all of 5th finger and ? of 4th finger
    Ulnar nerve
  21. Consequence of ulnar nerve injury
    Claw hand
  22. Motor to thumb and finger flexors
    Median nerve
  23. Sensory to most of palm and 1st three fingers on palmar side
    Median nerve
  24. Nerve involved in carpal tunnel syndrome
    Median nerve
  25. Motor for wrist extension, finger extension, thumb extension, and triceps
    Radial nerve
  26. Sensory to first 3 ? fingers on dorsal side
    Radial nerve
  27. Motor to biceps, brachialis, and coracobrachialis
    Musculocutaneous nerve
  28. Motor to deltoid
    Axillary nerve
  29. Symptoms of C1-4 nerve compression
    Neck and scalp pain
  30. Symptoms of C5 nerve compression
    Weak deltoid, biceps, weak biceps reflex
  31. Symptoms of C6 nerve compression
    Weak deltoid and biceps, weak wrist extensors, weak biceps and brachioradialis reflex
  32. Symptoms of C7nerve compression
    Weak triceps, weak triceps reflex
  33. Symptoms of C8 nerve compression
    Weak triceps, weak intrinsic muscles of hand and wrist flexion
  34. Contents of radial nerve
  35. Contents of median nerve
  36. Contents of ulnar nerve
  37. Contents of musculocutaneous nerve
  38. Contents of axillary nerve
  39. Nerve roots on the superior portion of brachial plexus
  40. Nerve roots on inferior portion of the brachial plexus
  41. Treatment of clavicle fracture and AC separation
  42. Indications for surgical repair of scapula fracture
    Involvement of glenoid fossa
  43. Proximal ulnar fracture + radial head dislocation
    Monteggia fracture
  44. Distal radius fracture
    Colles fracture
  45. Treatment of supracondylar fracture (adults and children)
    Internal fixation (adults), closed reduction (children)
  46. Supracondylar humerus fracture with resulting occluded anterior interosseus artery, then subsequent re-opening of artery and forearm compartment syndrome
    Volkmann�s contracture
  47. Pain in forearm with passive extension, weakness, tense forearm, and hypesthesia after fracture
    Volkmann�s fracture
  48. Proliferation of palmar fascia of hand causing 4th and 5th digit contracture
    Dupuyten�s contracture
  49. Treatment of Dupuyten�s contracture
    NSAIDS, steroids, transverse carpal ligament release
  50. Median nerve compression by transverse carpal ligament
    Carpal tunnel syndrome
  51. Tenosynovitis of flexor tendon that catches at MCP joint
    Trigger finger
  52. Treatment of trigger finger
    Splint, sheath steroid injections, release of MCP joint
  53. Infections spreading along flexor tendon sheaths
    Suppurative tenosynovitis
  54. Rotator cuff muscles
    Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis
  55. Infection under nail bed
  56. Treatment of paronychia
    Antibiotics, removal of nail
  57. Infection of terminal joint space of the finger
  58. Treatment of femoral shaft fracture
    ORIF with intramedullary rod
  59. Treatment of femoral neck fracture
  60. Damage with lateral knee trauma
    ACL, PCL and medial meniscus
  61. Knee effusion and pain with pivoting action
    ACL injury
  62. Diagnostic study required in posterior knee dislocation
    Angiogram to eval popliteal artery
  63. Treatment of patellar fracture
    Long cast, ORIF (if comminuted)
  64. Treatment of tibial plateau fracture and tib-fib fracture
    ORIF (if closed) ex-fix (if open)
  65. Ankle fractures needing ORIF
    Bimalleolar or trimalleolar
  66. Treatment of metatarsal fracture
    Cast or brace 6 weeks
  67. Nerve most commonly injured during lower extremity fasciotomy
    Superficial peroneal
  68. Nerve damage producing foot drop
    Common peroneal nerve
  69. Structures in anterior leg compartment (1 vessel, 1 nerve, 3 muscles)
    Anterior tibial artery, deep peroneal nerve, anterior tibialis, extensor hallicus longus, extensor digitorum longus
  70. Structures in lateral leg compartment (1 nerve, 1 muscle group)
    Superficial peroneal nerve, peroneal muscles
  71. Structures in deep posterior leg compartment (2 vessels, 1 nerve, 3 muscles)
    Posterior tibial artery, peroneal artery, tibial nerve, flexor hallicus longus, flexor digitorum longus, posterior tibialis
  72. Structures in superficial posterior leg compartment (1 nerve, 3 muscles)
    Sural nerve, gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris
  73. Most common bacteria in osteomyelitis
  74. Spinal malformation common in prepubertal females
    Idiopathic adolescent scoliosis
  75. Indications for surgery in scoliosis
    Curves >45 deg or likely to progress (spinal fusion)
  76. Tibial tubercle apophysitis caused by traction injury from quadriceps
    Osgood-Schlatter disease
  77. AVN of femoral head causing painful limping
    Legg-Calve-Perthes disease
  78. Common hip disorder in males aged 10-13 causing painful limp; increases risk of AVN
    Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE)
  79. Treatment of SCPE
    Hip pinning
  80. Treatment for congenital dislocation of hip
    Pavlik harness
  81. Most common bone tumor
    Metastatic disease (breast and prostate)
  82. Most common primary malignant tumor of bone
    Multiple myeloma
  83. Treatment of pathologic fractures
    Internal fixation, XRT for pain
  84. Most common primary bone sarcoma
    Osteogenic sarcoma
  85. Treatment of osteogenic sarcoma
    Limb-sparing resection, chemo, XRT
  86. Treatment of benign bone tumors
    Observation, or curettage +/- bone graft
  87. Subluxation or slip of one vertebral body over another, usually lumbar region
  88. Treatment of cervical stenosis
    Surgical decompression (if significant myelopathy is present)
  89. Treatment of lumbar stenosis
    Surgical decompression (if refractory to medical treatment)
  90. Treatment of open fracture
    I&D, antibiotics, fracture stabilization, soft tissue coverage
  91. Buckling of metaphyseal cortex seen in children
    Torus fracture