a reference to an historical event, text, person etc.
outside the text
a means of argument through the use of comparison
Forensic (about the past),
Deliberative (about the future),
Epideictic/Ceremonial (about the present)
the specific, identifiable ‘reader’ an author directs his/her argument toward
expert testimony other than the author’s used to validate and support his/her claims
by synonym; by example (or ostensive); stipulative definitions
ethical appeal or the author’s credibility: established by
1). Demonstrating knowledge of the subject;
2). Establishing common ground with the audience and
3). Considering opposing points of view; demonstrating fairness
a conclusion about the unknown based on the known
emotional appeal; arguments from the heart
the dynamic driven by the context in which an argument takes place, ie., the relationship between the author (and his or her purpose), subject, and audience
a means of investigating/analyzing a particular argument employing four basic questions
1.Did something happen (arguments of fact)?
2.What is the nature of the thing (arguments of definition)?
3.What is the quality of the thing (arguments of evaluation)?
4. What actions should be taken (proposal arguments)?
a form of reasoning with a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion that follows exclusively from the parameters of the two premises: it must be both valid (in its structure) and true (in the content of its premises)
EX: All humans are mortal
Socrates is a human
Socrates is mortal.
author’s rhetorical intention; what he or she is attempting to accomplish
Cicero’s three major purposes: to delight, to teach, to move
drawing general conclusions from specific observations (only probably