Medical Terminology OFT 140

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Medical Terminology OFT 140
2010-11-10 19:32:17
Chapter Fourteen Gastrointestinal System

Diagnostic Tests & Procedures
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  1. Endoscopy
    • examination within a body cavity with a flexible endoscope
    • - for diagnosis or treatment
    • - used in: gastrointestinal tract to detect abnormalities & perform procedures
    • - procedures include: biopsies, excision of lesions, dilations of narrowed areas, & removal of swallowed objects
  2. Esophagoscopy
    examination of the esophagus with an esophagoscope
  3. Gastroscopy
    examination of the stomach with a gastroscope
  4. Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
    endoscopic procedure including x-ray fluoroscopy to examine the ducts of the liver, gallbladder, & pancreas (biliary ducts)
  5. Laparoscopy
    • examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope
    • - often includes interventional surgical procedures
  6. Peritoneoscopy
    • examination of the peritoneal cavity with a peritoneoscope
    • - use: examine the liver & obtain a biopsy specimen
  7. Capsule Endoscopy
    • examination of the small intestine made be a tiny video camera placed in a capsule & swallowed
    • - images are transmitted to a waist-belt recorder & downloaded onto a computer for assessment of possible abnormalities
    • - traditional endoscopy cannot completely access the small intestine because of its length & complexity
  8. Colonoscopy
    examination of the colon using a flexible colonoscope
  9. Sigmoidoscopy
    examination of the sigmoid colon with a rigid or flexible sigmoidoscope
  10. Proctoscopy
    examination of the rectum anus with a proctoscope
  11. Magnetic Resonance Image of the Abdomen
    nonioning imaging technique for visualizing the abdominal cavity to identify disease or deformity in the gastrointestinal tract
  12. Nuclear Medicine
    radionuclide organ imaging
  13. Liver Scan
    • scan of the liver made after injection of radioactive tracers into the bloodstream
    • - use: to determine tumors & functional abnormalities
  14. Radiography
    (7 Types)
    • - upper GI series
    • - barium swallow
    • - fluoroscopy
    • - small bowel series
    • - lower GI series barium enema
    • - cholangiogram
    • - cholecystogram
  15. Upper GI Series
    • x-ray of: esophagus, stomach, & duodenum
    • - done after a patient has swallowed a contrast medium (usually barium)
  16. Barium Swallow
    • x-ray of: esophagus only
    • - often used to: locate swallowed objects
  17. Fluoroscopy
    • x-ray using a fluorescent screen to visualize structures in motion
    • - used during barium swallow
  18. Small Bowel Series
    • x-ray exam of the small intestine
    • - generally done in conjunction with an upper GI series
  19. Lower GI Series Barium Enema
    x-ray of the colon after administration of an enema containing a contrast medium
  20. Cholangiogram
    • x-ray of the bile ducts
    • - often performed during surgery
  21. Cholecystogram
    x-ray of the gallbladder taken after oral ingestion of iodine
  22. Computed Tomography (CT) of Abdomen
    cross-sectional x-ray of the abdomen used to identify a condition or anomaly within the gastrointestinal tract
  23. CT Colongraphy
    • computed tomographic image of the colon performed as an alternative to traditional invasive colonoscopy
    • - also known as: virtual colonoscopy
  24. Songraphy
    (2 Types)
    • - abdominal sonogram
    • - endoscopic sonography
  25. Abdominal Sonogram
    ultrasound image of the abdomen to detect disease or deformity in organs & vascular structures
  26. Endoscopic Sonography
    endoscopic procedure using in a sonographic transducer within an endoscope to examine a body cavity & make songraphic images of structures & tissues
  27. Biopsy (Bx)
    (4 Types)
    • removal of tissue for microscopic pathological examination
    • - 4 types: endoscopic, excisional, incisional, needle
  28. Endoscopic Biopsy
    removal of a specimen for biopsy during an endoscopic procedure
  29. Excisional Biopsy
    removal of an entire lesion for examination
  30. Incisional Biopsy
    removal of a portion of a lesion for examination
  31. Needle Biopsy
    percutaneous removal of a core specimen of tissue using a special hollow needle
  32. Stool Culture & Sensitivity (C&S)
    • isolation of a stool specimen in a culture medium to identify disease causing organisms
    • - if present, the drugs they are sensitive to are listed
  33. Stool Occult Blood Study
    • chemical test of a stool specimen to detect the presence of blood
    • - positive finding indicate bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract