DH Radiology

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Author:
sthomp88
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48789
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DH Radiology
Updated:
2010-11-10 19:05:51
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Chapter thirty two
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Interpretation of dental caries
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  1. the localized destruction of teeth by microorganisms
    Dental caries (tooth decay)
  2. Normal mineralized tooth structure, which consists of_____________, __________________, and________________ is altered and destroyed by dental caries
    • enamel
    • dentin
    • cementum
  3. The term caries comes from the Latin_____________, which means________________.
    • cariousus
    • rottenness
  4. a carious lesion, or an area of tooth decay, is often referred to as a____________.
    cavity
  5. In dentistry, what term refers to a hole in the tooth that is the result of the caries process?
    cavity
  6. true or false. Dental examination for caries cannot be complete without radiographs.
    true
  7. Dental radiographs are used to determine the______________and________________of dental caries
    • extent
    • severity
  8. true or false. Some carious lesions can be detected by simply looking in the mouth, while others can not.
    true
  9. All teeth must be examined clinically for dental caries with a____________and______________
    • mirror
    • explorer
  10. What are 3 functions of the mouth mirror in clinical examination?
    • reflect light
    • indirect vision
    • retract tongue
  11. What is the function of the explorer in clinic examination?
    tactile to detect changes in consistency (catches or tug-backs) in pits, grooves, and fissures of teeth
  12. What are 3 visible color changes that may indicate dental caries that are seen during a clinical examination?
    • pit stains
    • chalky white or opacities (demineralization)
    • interproximal discoloration
  13. demineralization and destruction of hard tooth structures results in a loss of tooth_______________.
    density
  14. ________________and_________________of hard tooth structures result in a loss of tooth density.
    • demineralization
    • destruction
  15. Do dental caries appear radiolucent or radiopaque on a radiograph? Why is this?
    • Radiolucent
    • because decreased density of the caries allows greater penetration of x-ray
  16. What is the type of x-ray recommended for the detection of caries?
    bitewing x-ray
  17. What are 3 helpful interpretation tips for the interpretation of caries on a radiograph?
    • correctly mounted films
    • correctly viewed films (light box)
    • magnifying glass
  18. Where should the films be viewed and interpreted?
    infront of the patient
  19. What are 3 factors that may influence caries interpretation?
    • diagnostic quality
    • technical errors
    • exposure errors
  20. What is a technical error that has a big effect on the diagnostic quality of a film?
    horizontal angulation
  21. What are 2 exposure factors that will influence caries interpretation?
    • contrast
    • density
  22. caries found between 2 adjacent teeth
    interproximal caries
  23. Where are interproximal caries typically seen?
    at or just below (apical to) the contact area.
  24. Which area is difficult, if not impossible, to examine clinically with an explorer?
    Interproximal spaces
  25. What shape do caries exhibit when they are confined to the enamel?
    triangular configuration with the point seen at the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ)
  26. What happens as the caries reach the DEJ?
    they spread laterally and continue through the dentin, forming another triangular configuration with the point towards the pulp chamber
  27. Dental interproximal caries are classified by____________and_________________through the enamel and dentin
    • depth
    • penetration
  28. What are the 4 classification types of interproximal carious lesions?
    • incipient
    • moderate
    • advanced
    • severe
  29. interproximal carie that extends less than half way through the enamel, this is seen only in enamel.
    • incipient interproximal carie
    • class I
  30. interproximal carie that extends more than half way through the thickness of enamel, but does not involve the DEJ, occurs only in enamel
    • moderate interproximal carie
    • class II
  31. Interproximal carie that extends to or through the DEJ and into the dentin, but does not extend through the dentin more than half the distance towards the pulp, affects both enamel and dentin
    • advanced interproximal carie
    • class III
  32. Interproximal carie that extends through enamel, through the dentin and more than half the distance towards the pulp, involves both the enamel and the dentin, and may be seen clinically as a cavitation in the tooth
    • severe interproximal carie
    • class IV
  33. Caries that involve the chewing surface of the posterior teeth
    occlusal caries
  34. What is the method of choice for detection of occlusal caries?
    clinical examination
  35. Why are occlusal caries difficult to see on radiographs? When can you see them on radiographs?
    • because of the dense buccal and lingual enamel cusps
    • when it involves the DEJ
  36. What are the 3 classification types of occlusal caries?
    • incipient
    • moderate
    • severe
  37. occlusal caries that cannot be seen on a radiograph, you must detect with an explorer
    incipient occlusal caries
  38. Occlusal caries the extend into the dentin and appear as a thin radiolucent line located under the enamel, little or no change is seen in the enamel
    Moderate occlusal caries
  39. Occlusal caries the extend into dentin and appear as a large radiolucency that extends under the enamel of the occlusal surface of the tooth, it is seen clinically and appears as a cavitation in a tooth
    severe occlusal carie
  40. ________________involves the buccal tooth surface, whereas___________________involves the lingual tooth surface.
    • buccal caries
    • lingual caries
  41. Why are buccal and lingual caries so difficult to detect radiographically and must be clinically examined with an explorer?
    because of the superimposition of the densities of normal tooth structure
  42. How do caries that involve the buccal or lingual surface of the tooth appear radiographically?
    as small, circular radiolucencies
  43. Involves only the roots of teeth (not enamel) the cementum and dentin located just below the cervical region of the tooth.
    root surface caries
  44. __________________and corresponding______________________precede the root surface caries process and result in______________________.
    • bone loss
    • gingival recession
    • exposed root surfaces
  45. true or false. Clinically, root surface caries is easily detected on exposed root surfaces
    true
  46. What are the most common locations for root surface caries?
    • exposed roots of:
    • -mandibular premolar areas
    • -mandibular molar areas
  47. On a dental radiograph, what types of caries appear as a cupped-out or crater-shaped radiolucency just below the CEJ?
    root surface caries
  48. Caries that occur adjacent to a preexisting restoration
    recurrent caries
  49. What are 3 things that cause recurrent caries?
    • inadequate cavity preparation
    • defective margins
    • incomplete removal of caries before placement of restoration
  50. Where is the most common place for recurrent caries?
    beneath the interproximal margins of a restoration
  51. advanced severe caries that affect numerous teeth
    rampant caries
  52. growing or spreading unchecked
    rampant
  53. where are rampant caries typically seen?
    • children with poor dietary habits
    • adults with decreased salivary flow

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