Respiratory and Urinary LP

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Respiratory and Urinary LP
2010-11-21 22:33:54

Respiratory and Urinary Questions for Lab Practicum
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  1. What is the mediastinum?
    The area underneath the sternum
  2. What is the significance of the lung region know as the cardiac notch?
    It's the part of the left lung that houses the heart
  3. What does retrosternal fat pad mean, literally?
    fat pad behind the sternum
  4. What structure is contained within the pericardial sac?
  5. What type of muscle tissue makes up the diaphragm?
  6. What is the role of the diaphragm?
    Main muscle of respirations
  7. What is the function of the phrenic nerve?
    Innervates the diaphragm
  8. What does the thyrohyoid membrane's name indicate about its location?
    It's between the thyroid bone and the thyroid cartilage.
  9. What does the cricothyroid muscle's name indicate about its location?
    It's between the thyroid cartilage and the cricoid.
  10. What are the names of the three unpaired cartilages forming the larynx. Which is the largest?
    • Thyroid - largest
    • Epigottis
    • Cricoid
  11. Of that specific type of cartilage do the tracheal rings consist?
  12. What is the function of the epiglottis?
    To prevent aspiration.
  13. Where does the trachea line in relation to the esophagus?
  14. Which principal bronchus (left or right) is more vertical?
  15. Which principal bronchus (left or right) would be more likely to be the site of lodged food? Why?
    Right, it's steeper.
  16. Where is the carina located?
    The junction of the left and right bronchus.
  17. Above which large laryngeal cartilage is the hyoid bone located?
    Thyroid cartilage
  18. What is the name of the cartilage projecting just posterior to the hyoid bone?
  19. What is the derivation of apex of left lung?
    Point of lung
  20. What is the function of the vocal ligament?
    To produce sound
  21. What is the derivation of the epiglottis?
    Above the glottis (opening between vocal cords)
  22. How many lobar (secondary) bronchi supply the left lung? How many subsections?
    • 2 secondary bronchi
    • 8 subsections
  23. How many lobar (secondary) bronchi suppply the right lung? How many subsections?
    • 3 secondary bronchi
    • 10 subsections
  24. What is the function of the tracheal rings?
    So the trachea doesn't collapse on inspiration.
  25. Into what portion of the pharynx does the mouth cavity empty?
  26. In what pharyngeal region do the esophagus and trachea diverge?
  27. What two structures does the auditory tube (Eustachian tube) connect?
    Middle ear and nasopharynx
  28. What is the name of the large blue vessel that runs vertically between the two kidneys?
    Inferior vena cava
  29. What are the names of the branches of the large blue vessel that lead from the kidneys?
    Renal veins
  30. Into what chamber of the heart does the inferior vena cava empty its contents?
    Right atrium
  31. What is the name of the branches of the abdominal aorta that lead to the kidneys?
    Renal artery
  32. Below the branch points to the kidneys, two arteries arise that leave the lateral sides of the aorta. These are the left and right:
    testicular arteries
  33. Continuing inferiorly, another vessle arises from the medial portion of the abdominal aorta. This is the:
    inferior mesenteric artery
  34. At the inferior end of the abdominal aorta, it splits into the left and right:
    Common iliac artery
  35. What is the name of the whitish-yellow material surrounding each of the kidneys?
    Renal fascia
  36. What type of connective tissue is renal fascia?
    Dense Irregular
  37. What is the anatomical location of the suprarenal glands?
    Superior to the kidneys
  38. What is the common name for the suprarenal glands?
    Adrenal glands
  39. Which of the two kidneys is at a superior position?
    Left kidney
  40. What is the name of the yellow material at the edge of each kidney?
    Perirenal fat
  41. The ureter functions to carry _____ from the kidney to the _______.
    • urine
    • bladder
  42. What type of epithelial tissue lines the lumen of the ureter, and what is its function?
    • transitional
    • to expand as urine passes through
  43. What is the name of the outer edge of the kidney (whitish-pink border)?
    Renal cortex
  44. The middle portion of the kidney is subdivided into:
    Darker pink region ________
    Whitish-pink areas between the darker pink regions __________
    • Renal Pyramid
    • Renal Column
  45. What are the large, hollow, concave region in the kidney were the renal pyramids and renal columns lie?
    Renal sinus
  46. What is the name of the structures that directly collect urine from the renal pyramids?
    Minor calyx
  47. Urine from a group of these narrow regions is then pooled into larger areas directly medial to them, they are the:
    Major calyx
  48. From the larger, medial regions urine is then collected in a structure that leads to the ureter, it's called:
    Renal Pelvis
  49. What is the name of the tube leading from the urinary bladder out of the body?
  50. Which vessel carries blood into the glomerulus?
    Afferent arteriole
  51. What is the function of the glomerulus?
    To filter blood
  52. What is a nephron?
    Function unit of the kidney
  53. What is the name of the special group of cells that line the afferent arteriole and make physical contact with the walls of the distal convoluted tubule?
    Juxtaglomerular cell
  54. What is the name given to the group of cells of the walls of the distal convoluted tubule that are making contact with the juxtaglomerular cells of the afferent arteriole?
    Macula densa cell
  55. From what specific type of tissue are juxtaglomerular cells derived?
    Smooth muscle
  56. What important enzyme is released by juxtaglomerular cells?
  57. Are juxtaglomerular cells appropriately named? Explain.
    Yes, they lie next to the glomerulus
  58. What is the literal meaning of macula densa?
    Dense spot