Chemistry: (3) States of Matter (unit one) Test

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alipeace11
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48825
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Chemistry: (3) States of Matter (unit one) Test
Updated:
2011-01-08 11:10:30
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chemistry
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kinetic energy, density, heat vs. temp, temp scales, heating/cooling curves, Q problems, units of energy, units of pressure, conceptual problems, combined gas law
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  1. kinetic theory explaination of Boyle's law
    • pressure increases as volume decreases
    • smaller space=more collisions
  2. Kinetic theory explaination of gay-lussac's law?
    As temp increases, pressure increases.

    temp rises= more KE= more collisions= more pressure
  3. Kinetic theory explaination of charles's law?
    As temp of gas increases, volume of gas increases.
  4. How do hot air balloons work?
    In hot air balloons, the volume increases but not the mass. Since density is a ratio of volume and mass, (M/V=D), when volume increases and mass stays the same, density decresases and the hot air balloon will rise above the more dense air outside. To increase the volume and not the mass, heat up the gas inside the balloon.
  5. What causes gas pressure?
    The collision of particles
  6. Standard Pressure
    1 atm, 760 mmHg or 101.3 kPa
  7. When altitute increases, what happens to air pressure?
    It decreases
  8. Explain how a vaccuum cleaner works.
    There is low pressure inside a vaccuum, so the higher outside pressure pushes things into the vaccuum cleaner. "Nothing sucks in chemistry"
  9. Specific heat
    The energy needed to raise/lower 1 gram of a substance 1 degree Celsius
  10. Do phase changes chage the temperature of a substance?
    No. Only once a phase change has occured completely will a temp change. 0 degree ice melts into 0 degree water.
  11. How is the energy taken in/ given off used in a temp change?
    to break or form intermolecular attractions
  12. Phase changes happen when ____________ _________ are broken or formed.
    intermolecular forces
  13. What causes higher melting points?
    stronger intermolecular attractions
  14. What is the relationship between temperature and vapor pressure?
    as temperature increases, vapor pressure increases
  15. What is the difference between evaporation and vapor pressure?
    • Evaporation- particles at the surface change to gas and leave the container
    • Vapor pressure- particles turn to gas and are trapped in container, so pressure builds up as the hit walls of container and each other
  16. When does boiling happen?
    When vapor pressure equals atmospheric temperature
  17. Boiling and condensation are both __________ processes
    cooling
  18. How does sweating cool you down?
    • The particles with the most KE leave the container (skin)
    • Particles left behind have lower KE/ temp
  19. Which burn is more severe? Steam or water?
    Steam because once water reaches 100 degress celsius it cannot get any hotter. Steam gets much hotter.
  20. Formula for KE?
    KE= 1/2mv2
  21. Can different objects in different states at the same temperature have the same KE?
    • Yes.
    • Ex) Water at 25 degrees celsius and copper at 25 degrees celsius have the same KE.
  22. Two qualities of matter?
    • takes up space
    • has mass
  23. Mass
    The amount of matter in an object
  24. Formula for the volume of rectangles?
    Lwh
  25. Formula for the volume of circles?
    (pi)(r2)(h)
  26. Volume of irregular solids?
    liquid displacement
  27. When doing an equation for the gas laws, what is one very important thing to remember to do?
    Convert temperature to Kelvin!
  28. What happens when hot steam hits a cold solid?
    • 1) The steam's heat is transferred to the solid
    • 2) The steam changes to water
    • 3) Particles slow down= less KE= less pressure and temperature
  29. What are three ways to increase pressure in a bag?
    • 1) heat up bag
    • 2) decrease size of bag
    • 3) increase amount of particles in bag

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