Card Set Information
interpretation of periodontal disease
what is defined as the tissues that invest and support the teeth
what are two types of tissues that invest and support the teeth?
gingiva and alveolar bone
what are the three parts of alveolar bone?
periodontal ligament space
what does the lamina dura appear as when healthy?
dense radiopaque line
when healthy where is the alveolar crest located?
approx 1.5 to 2.0 mm apical to the cementoenamel junction CEJ
what does the alveolar crest look like in the anterior area?
pointed and sharp
what does the alveolar crest appear like for the posterior area?
flat smooth and parallel to a line between adjacent CEJs. Slightly less radiopaque compared to anteriors
how does the periodontal ligament space appear?
thin radiolucent line between root of tooth and lamina dura
when the periodontal ligament space is healthy how does it appear?
continuous around the root structure and is uniform in thickness
what means around a tooth?
what refers to a group of diseases that affect the tissues around the teeth?
what does the tissue look like with periodontal disease?
inflammation of gingiva
loses stippling, pink and firm appearance
swollen, red, bleeding with pocketing
periodontal disease involves destruction of the ______ ______ and ______ ______
with periodontal disease the alveolar crest is no longer located where?
1.5 to 2.0 mm apical to CEJ
with periodontal disease the alveolar bone no longer appears _____
how does the alveolar bone appear with periodontal disease?
indistinct and bone loss is seen
how is periodontal disease detected?
clinically and radiographically both necessary
_____ examination provides info about soft tissue
_____ examination provides info about the bone?
what type of info does a clinical examination provide?
about soft tissue
what type of info does radiographic examination provide?
about the bone
who can perform the clinical examination?
DDS or RDH
what are you evaluating the soft tissues for in a clinical examination?
inflammation-redness, bleeding, swelling, pus
what must be included in you clinical examination?
what do the periodontal probing measurements help you do?
classify the perio
what are you looking for in a radiographic examination for periodontal disease?
amount of bone present
what do radiographs provide for periodontal disease?
what type of film is used to look at periodontal disease?
what technic is used for periodontal disease radiographs?
what types of radiographs are not used for periodontal disease examinations?
what type of periodontal disease is easier to treat, vertical or horizontal?
what is limited to see on a radiograph?
how is bone loss estimated?
difference between the physiologic level and the height of the remaining bone
how is bone loss described?
in terms of pattern, distribution and severity of loss
what type of bone loss occurs in a plane parallel to the CEJ's of adjacent teeth?
horizontal bone loss
what type of bone loss does not occur in a plane parallel to the CEJ's of adjacent teeth?
vertical bone loss (angular)
what type of distribution occurs in isolated areas with less than 30% of the sites involved?
localized bone loss
what type of bone loss accounts for less than 30% of sites involved?
what type of distribution occurs evenly throughout the dental arches with more than 30% of the sites involved?
generalized bone loss
what type of bone loss accounts for more than 30% of sites involved
generalized bone loss
how is bone loss severity classified?
how is bone loss measured?
by the clinical attachment loss (CAL) from the CEJ to bas of sulcus or pocket (probe)
slight bone loss is how many mm?
moderate bone loss is how many mm
severe bone loss is how many mm?
5mm or greater
what are the four ADA classifications of periodontal disease?
ADA case type I - gingivitis
ADA case type II - mild or slight periodontitis
ADA case type III - moderate periodontitis
ADA case type IV - advanced or severe periodontitis
Describe ADA case type I
no bone loss
no radiographic changes seen
only gingival tissues are affected by the inflammatory process
describe ADA case type II
mild or slight periodontitis
mild crestal changes
lamina dura becomes unclear and fuzzy also no longer appears to be a continuous radiopaque line
horizontal bone loss
alveolar bone level appox 3-4 mm
bleeding may occur on probing pocketing and recession may be present clinically
which ADA case has alveolar bone level approx 3-4 mm apical to CEJ
what ADA case does the lamina dura become unclear and fuzzy, also no longer appears to be a continuous radiopaque line
what case type has horizontal or vertical bone loss that is localized or generalized
what ADA case type is moderate periodontitis?
what ADA case type has alveolar bone level at approx 4-6 mm apical to CEJ
which ADA case type may have furcation involvement?
clinically what ADA case type has pocketing, attachment loss up to 6 mm, recession, furcation areas, and slight mobility possible?
what is the alveolar bone level for ADA case type IV?
6 mm or greater from the CEJ
which ADA case type has furcation involvement and is readily viewed on posterior radiographs?
what does ADA case type IV look like clinically?
pocket depths and attachment loss is greater than 6mm, furcation involvement and mobility are more severe
what are some predisposing risk factors of periodontal disease?
medications, tobacco use, diabetes
_______, _______ and ______ of local irritants are important
what are some local irritants that must be eliminated?
what is a stone like concretion that forms on crowns and roots of teeth due to calcifications of bacterial plaque?
what are three characteristics of calculus?
pointed or irregular projections
extends from proximal root surfaces
what are three forms calculus can take?
calculus is a _____ or _____ projection
sharp or pointed
defective restorations act as potential _____ _____ and contribute to _______ _______
what do radiographs help to identify with restorations?
open or loose contacts, uneven marginal ridges, overhangs and inadequate margins