251_names.txt

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Author:
mish
ID:
48840
Filename:
251_names.txt
Updated:
2010-11-10 22:42:17
Tags:
orgo organic chemistry nomenclature
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Description:
Rules of nomenclature in organic chemistry.
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  1. Numbering around a ring:
    start numbering so that all numbers are as small as possible.
  2. Finding a principal chain:
    Use the longest chain, then pick the one that has the most substituents.
  3. Naming a ring:
    • 1 substituent = no need for number
    • 2 substituents = alphabetical order in naming ("iso" yes, "di" no) and priority, use smallest numbers
    • 3 substituents = alphabetic order in naming, use smallest numbers
  4. If one or more functional groups is included:
    • Use most important one in suffix
    • do not use it as a prefix (but start numbering there: 2-methylcyclohexanol).
  5. cis and trans:
    • relevant for ALKENES and RINGS
    • specifies which side of a ring/bond substituents are on

    i.e. cis-1-ethyl-3-methylcyclohexane
  6. E and Z:
    refers to highest-priority substituents’ sides of the bond.

    chloro/hydrogen and iodo/chloro is trans-chloro and Z.
  7. Bicycloalkanes without substituents:
    • "bicyclo[L.M.N]xane"
    • L and M are non-bridge carbons in rings.
    • N is number in bridge.
    • x is total carbons.

    DO NOT COUNT bridge-connecting carbons in L, M, or N.
  8. Bicycloalkanes definition:
    two rings which share >1 carbon.
  9. Spiralkanes definition:
    two rings which share one carbon.
  10. Bicycloalkanes with substituents:
    For substituents, start counting at bridgehead carbon, onto larger ring, and around biggest ring. Finish while going over bridge, using smallest number possible.
  11. Spiroalkane naming:
    • spiro[L.M]xane
    • L and M are non-overlapping carbons in rings (smaller first).
    • x is total carbons.
  12. Order of priority in naming/numbering:
    alcohol > alkene > alkyne > [ether / alkyl halide / alkyl group]
  13. Vinyl group:
    CH2=CH2~
  14. Allyl group:
    CH2=CH-CH2~

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