T/F fractures may affect the crowns and roots of teeth or bones of the maxilla or mandible
which teeth usually are involved in fractures?
T/F crown fractures may involve the enamel only, the enamel and dentin, or the enamel, dentin, and the pulp
the radiograph for observing a fracture allows the dental professional to evaluate the ________ of the _____ ________ to the fracture and examine the root for additional fractures
which is more common, a root fracture or a crown fracture?
when do root fracture occur?
from an accident or traumatic blow
what is the most common region for root fractures to occur?
maxillary central incisors
a fracture that is parallel with the x-ray beam appears as:
a sharp radiolucent line on a PA
how come with time root fractures have a tendency to enlarge?
displacement of root fragments
what is the most common bone for fractures in the face?
which are more common, maxillary fractures or mandibular fractures?
mandibular fractures of the alveolar bone and teeth
tooth _________ includes luxation (intrusion or extrusion) and avulsion
the abnormal displacement of teeth
abnormal displacement of teeth INTO the bone
abnormal displacement or teeth OUT of the bone
the complete displacement of a tooth from the alveolar bone
which displacement is most common with an assault or accidental fall?
dental radiographs are important in the evaluation of the socket area and should be used to examine the region for ________ ______
what are the two types of resorption associated with teeth?
a process that is seen with the normal shedding of primary teeth
the roots of a primary tooth are resorbed as the permanent successor moves in an occlusal direction; the primary tooth is shed when the resorption of the roots is complete.
a regressive alteration of tooth structure that is observed when a tooth is subjected to abnormal stimuli
resorption of teeth can be described as _______ or ________ depending on the location of the resorption process
what type of resorption is seen along the periphery of the root surface and is often associated with reimplanted teeth, abnormal mechanical forces, trauma, chronic inflammation, tumors/cysts, impacted teeth or idiopathic causes?
what does external resorption usually affect?
the apices of teeth
the apical region is blunted and the length of the roots appear shorter than normal, this is ________ resorption
both the lamina dura and the bone around the blunted apex appear normal with __________ resorption
T/F external resorption can only be detected clinically and with signs or symptoms
false! It cannot be detected clinically, only on a radiograph. asymptomatic
T/F teeth that undergo external resorption do not exhibit mobility
T/F there is no effective treatment for external resorption
resorption that occurs within the crown or root of a tooth and involves the pulp chamber, pulp canals, and surrounding dentin
T/F trauma, pulp capping, and pulp polyps are believed to stimulate the internal resorption process
appears as a round ovoid radiolucency in the midcrown or midroot portion of a tooth
T/F internal resorption generally has symptoms
what is recommended if the tooth from the resorptive process has not physically weakened the tooth? what if the tooth is weakened?
a diffuse calcification of the pulp chamber and pulp canals of teeth that result in pulp cavity of decreased size
for unknown reasons, pulpal sclerosis is associated with______
pulpal sclerosis appears as a pulp cavity that is _______ in size
does not appear to have a pulp chamber or pulp canals=
pulpal obliteration teeth appear to be ________ and do not require treatment
some conditions ( attrition, abrasion, caries, etc) may act as irritants to the pulp and stimulate the production of secondary dentin which results in _________ of the pulp cavity
calcifications that are found in the pulp chamber or pulp canals of teeth
pulp stoney stones
T/F the cause of pulp stones is unknown
round, ovoid, or cylindrical radiopacities and may conform the shape of the pulp chamber or canal
on a radiograph, ________ lesions may appear radiopaque or radiolucent
granulomas, cysts, and abcesses are common radiolocuencies:
can periapical lesions be diagnosed as a granuloma, cyst, or abcess from a radiograph?
no, it should just be called a periapical radiolucency
a localized mass of chronically inflamed granulation tissue at the apex of a nonvital tooth
T/F the periapical granuloma results from pulpal death and necrosis and s the most common sequela of pulpitis
true, i'm not lying!
what can give rise to a periapical cyst or abcess?
a periapical granuloma is typically _________ with a history of prolonged sensitivity to hot and cold
how does a periapical granuloma appear?
as a widened periodontal ligament space at the root apex
is the lamina dura visible between the root apex and the apical lesion with periapical granuloma?
no, it is radiolucent (its like bliggity black)
a radicular cyst aka:
cystic degeneration takes place within a periapical granuloma and results in a periapical cyst
cyst results from pulpal death and necrosis
what are the most common of all tooth related cysts and compromise 50% to 70% of all cysts in the oral region?
are periapical cysts asymptomatic or symptomatic?
a periapical cysts appears as a round or ovoid ___________
a localized collection of pus in the periapical region of a tooth that results from pulpal death