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What were the 5 causes of WWI?
- 1. Alliances- Triple Alliance(Aust. Hun., Germ, Italy)/ Entente(Fra., Russia, Brit.)
- 2. Economic Imerialism- taking countries to increase wealth
- 3. Nationalism- colonies wanted to rule themselves
- 4. Militarism- preparing for war
- 5. International Anarchy- there was no place for countries to talk out probs, so the only option was war
Who was in the Triple Alliance?
- 1. Austria- Hungary
- 2. Germany
- 3. Italy
Who was in the Triple Entente?
- 1. France
- 2. Russia
- 3. Britain
Where did WWI start?
Who were the Allied Powers?
- 1. Russia
- 2. Serbia
- 3. Britain (and Japan)
- 4. France
Who were the Central Powers?
- 1. Germany
- 2. Austria- Hungary
- 3. Turkey
Who assasinated Archduke Ferdinand?
When did WWI start?
Aug. 4, 1914
What was the name of Germany's plan to knock France out fast?
In what battle that lasted 3 years did the German's get stopped?
1st Battle of the Marne
What were 2 battles in the east between German and Russia?
What was the 1st time chemical warfare was used?
Battle of Ypres
What was the name of the British cruise ship sank by the Central Powers?
Who was known as the "sick man of Europe"?
What Britain fought in the Gallipoli Campaign?
Who was the leader that saved Gallipoli?
What was the only true naval battle of WWI?
What was the longest, bloodiest battle of WWI?
Battle of Verdun
Who was the leader of Verdun?
What battle had the highest single-day casualties of either world war?
Battle of Somme
Who was hired to revamp Germany at home?
What happened in the 1st Revolution in Russia?
Removed Czar from power
Who were Russia's temporary government officials?
Who were the 2 marxist leaders?
What happened inthe 2nd Revolution in Russia?
Communism/ Socialism introduced
Who was the 3rd communist leader in Russia?
A civil war broke out in Russia b/c of what treaty that had Germany agree to not invade if Russia gave up Poland, Finland, Ukrane, and 80% of their coal and iron-ore?
What were the 2 opposing groups of the Russian Civil War?
- 1.Bolsheviks- Red Russians
- 2.Mensheviks- White Russians (supporters of the Czar, allied powers, and all opposed to the treaty)
Who led the Bolsheviks?
Why did the US enter the war?
Germany decided they were strong enough to resume sub warfare which the US warned against
When did the US enter the war?
April 6, 1917
What US president offered a fair and just peace?
What were 2 of the 14 Points?
- 1. Self determination of the people- ppl shoud have a right to choose a government of their own ( also means colonies become independent)
- 2. There should be a place where people can talk out problems peacefully so that there is no Inernational Anarchy.
Who were 2 main German military leaders?
- 1. Ludendorff
- 2. Hindenburg
Who was the American that brought an end to Germany's prominence?
John J Pershing- halted Ludendorff at the Chateau Thierry
What happened on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month?
An Armistice (cease fire) was called
Who were the 4 main figures at the Peace Conference?
- 1. US- Woodrow Wilson
- 2. France- George Clemenceau
- 3. Britain- David Lloyd George
- 4. Italy- Victorio Orlando
What 2 countries were re-created?
What 2 countries were created?
- 1. Yugoslavia
- 2. Czechoslovakia
What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
- 1. no planes, tanks, or heavy artilery
- 2. no draft
- 3. lost most of merchant marine (hurt trade)
- 4. Lost (some of) manufacturing plants, iron-ore, coal, land, population, wealth, colonies, Alsase & Lorraine (to Fra.), Saar (mineral rich region in Germany that France was now allowed to mine for 15 years)
- 5. Blank Check (allies could not agree on payment amount to reimburse so they did not specify)
- 6. Article 221(Germany had to take sole and complete fault for war- The War Guild Clause)
What said Germany had to pay whatever war damages amount the Allieds decided?
What said Germany had to take sole responsibility for the war?
The War Guild Clause
What seaport in the Polish Corridor divided Germany?
Who modernized Turkey?
Mustafa Kamal Ataturk
What changes took place for women in Turkey?
- 1. sent to school
- 2. right to vote
- 3. obtain divorce
- 4. required to dress like western world
What British embesarry told the Arab World to fight on the Allied side and they'd be free from Turkey?
What divided the Arab World betewwn France and Britain?
Sikes- Picot Agreement
Britain encouraged Jews to fight on the allied side:
Balfour Declaration of 1917
British let who rule Iran after the war?
What was the name of the large communities that the Jews established in Palestine?
What British colony was told that if they fought on the Allied side, they would give them positions in the government?
Name of 'peaceful leader' in India:
Gandhi led a march to the sea b/c the Brits placed a high tax on what?
Another Hindu man shot Gandhi b/c he was 'being too nich' to what other religious group?
What dynasty was thrown out of China?
"Whoever is strongest, has control"
What area did Japan come in and take over?
What two people wanted a modern nationalist government in China?
- 1. Sun Yat-Sen
- 2. Chaing Kai-Shek
Who was the communist leader who appealed to the poor in China?
Mao Ze Dong
Civil war broke out b/c of what two groups in China?
Communists and Nationalists
What were the 3 changes in life in China?
- 1. Marriages no longer arranged
- 2. More education for women
- 3. Stopped binding feet
What was the name of the group in Japan that did not like foreigners?
What nation was tied w/ SE Asia in trade and Budism?
Indochina was a colony of:
East Indies were a colony of:
Phillippines were a colony of:
What were the effets of the war on France?
they became so far in debt, and needed Germany to pay them back. Mad at GB and US b/c they were not part of the League of Nations
Who signed the Little Entente?
France and smaller countries
What was the amount of reparations Germany was told they had to repay?
$130 Billion Gold Marks
What were the 8 changes post WWI?
- 1. ppl learned gov't couldn't always protect them
- 2. natural laws defied (Einstein)
- 3. psychology became important (Freud)
- 4. philosophy- logical empiricism & existentialism
- 5. christianity- some said God would not let so many ppl die, some that He kept more from dying
- 6. architecture- frank lloyd wright: natural products
- 7. painting- abstract art
- 8. music- became minor key, not as soothing
What was the temporary government placed in Germany after the overthrow of Kaiser Wilhelm?
People blamed Welmar Republic because of what two things?
Treaty of Versailles and Blank Check
What year did Germany make their 1st reparation payment?
What did Germany ask for when they couldn't make their reparation payment the next year?
3 years w/o payment so they could catch up
Where did France march into to take goods to pay back and the Germans just stopped working?
Ruhr- last good manufacturing area
Where did France go to get agriculture?
Rhineland- last good agricultural area
Why was Hitler so mad when he decided to take over Germany?
b/c he believed Jews got into arts and architecture schools before him
What was the name of the overthrow Hitler attempted in Munich?
Munich Beer Hall Putsch
What was the name of the autobiography Hitler wrote in prison?
Who was the leader in Germany who told the workers to go back to work?
What was the name that was used for the reduction of the amount of repayment Germany had to make and that the US would lend money to Germany to help rebuild and pay France, who would then in turn use the money to rebuild and repay war debts to the US?
Dawes Plan (by Charles Dawes- US)
What was the Young Plan?
further lightened reperations
What made Germany accept the treaty imposed borders?
Who joined the League of Nations in 1926?
In 1928, Germany and 14 other countries (including the US) signed what saying that war would not be used to settle problems ever again?
What year began the Great Depression?
France had become a haven for what group in the 1920's and where did they meet?
artists & the left bank
In Britain, who did the Labor Party elect for PM?