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Name 3 groups of haemoptysis causes and give 2 examples each.
- Pulmonary: neoplasms (esp.SCC), infarcts, inflammatory, trauma
- Cardiac: mitral stenosis, LVF
- Haematological: coagulation factor disorders, platelet disorders
Name 3 non-infective inflammatory causes of haematuria.
- Chronic bronchitis
- Goodpasture syndrome - diffuse pulmonary haemmorrhage + glomerulonephritis (anti-basement membrane AB)
- Pulmonary vasculitis (Wegener's Granuloma)
Name 5 infective inflammatory causes of haematuria.
- Lung abscess
- Necrotising pneumonia e.g. Staphylococcal
Describe the diagnosis of tuberculosis.
- Clinical: fever, weight loss, cough, haemoptysis, pneumothorax
- CXR: cavitations, fibrotic changes, opacities
- *Sputum smear*: auramine-rhadamine staining (with fluroscent microscope)
- Culture: require 1-2 weeks, on Lowenstein-Jensen medium
- Nucleic acid hybridisation tests: DNA probes
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