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What are the scientific criteria for which crime theories are judged?
- -imperical validity»can be verified by evidence
- -logical consistency»should work all the time
- -scope»Range of phenomena a theory puports to explain
- -parsimony»theory should be relatively simple in explaination
Demonic perspective says...
People become deviant because they are possessed by the devil.
Torture was used to...
obtain a confession.
Were used to keep the evil dead from polluting the earth with their dead bodies. They burned all of the dead in mass fires.
How many people were tried during the Salem Witch Trials?
200 were brought to trial.
How many people were executed during the Salem Witch Trials?
19 were executed.
What was the evidence used against people during the trials?
- -The Lord's Prayer test
- -testimony from "good people"
- -marks of the devil
- -confession of the accused
- -spectral evidence (used most often)»someone with a higher status says they say a ghost that looked like the accused.
In Classical or Deterrence Theory what are Beccaria's 6 principles?
- -Rational punishment is necessary to preserve the social contract
- -Legislatures should determine law, judges should determine guilt
- -Deviance is based on maximizing pleasure while minimizing pain
- -Rationally calculated punishment serves as social control
- -The object of social control is deterrence (keeps you on track in society)
- -Control should be placed on acts, not actors
What does Beccaria's theory say humans are influenced by?
This theory says humans are influence by calculated human reason and nothing else.
What was Beccaria's opinion about punishment?
He said punishment should be certain, swift, and appropriate to the crime. Slightly more severe than the pleasure the offender received from the criminal act.
What are the two types of deterrence?
- Specific»individual deterrence
- General»individuals who see others receiving punishment are deterred from breaking the law themselves.
What is Rational Choice Theory?
Modern version of classical theory. First used in the 1980s by economists.
What is expected utility principle?
Weighing costs and benifits in our decision making.
What is Lombroso's biological theory?
Atavist theory»Born criminal theory.
Physical signs of criminality... Long arms, monkey ears, big lips, large jaw, asymetrical face, extra fingers...
What is the concept of Sheldon's Theory?
A person's constitution determines personality which determines criminality. Personality goes with body type.
What is an ectomorph body type say about someone's body type?
Naturally thin; tends not to commit crime; mental thinkers.
What does an endomorph body type say about someone's personality?
Heavy; laziness; tends not to do crime.
What is a mesomorph body type?
Bone and muscle development; these are the criminals.
What is the principle of the XYY chromosome theory?
"Supermale Syndrome"»Found the extra Y in 1961. Belief is that the men would be super-aggressive and dangerously criminal.
Social disorganization theory says crime comes from...
The breakdown of social institutions.
What is the concentric zone theory?
Cities grow outward in rings from the center. The nicer areas are furthest away from the center.
What types of social conditions does social disorganization theory say are related to crime?
Disorganized.the disorganization of community-based institutions is often a result of rapid industrialization, urbanization, and immigration processes that occur primarily in urban areas.
What does strain theory say about where crime comes from?
Society places strain on people causing them to either conform or to become deviant.
What are Merton's adaptations to Anomie?
Anomie» a situation in which cultural norms break down because of rapid change
- -Innovation»Persons whom accept the cultural goals of a society but reject the conventional methods of attaining those goals.(drug dealer, a thief)
- -Ritualism»Doesn't care about the goals, but still attains them.
- -Retreatism»reject both the goals and means of attaining
- -Rebellion»not only reject the established cultural goals as well as the normative means of attaining those goals; but they also substitute a new schema of goals and acceptable means of attaining those goals.(political activits, punks)
Cohen's status deprivation theory»Lower class people cant live up to the status standards»"status deprivations" and become status frustrated.
What are Cloward and Ohlin's gang types»
- Conflict gang»some strained youth are precluded from gangs that primarily steal, so they congregate around violent behavior.(absent of adult role models)
- criminal gang»screen potential members for certain abilities and willingness to conform to a code of values necessary to the unit's success.(self-control, demonstrated solidarity to the group, desire to cultivate one's own criminal ability)
- retreat gang»not successful in violent gangs or other criminal activities, so they become drug users. turn to drugs to escape status frustration.
What did Agnew say the strain was about?
People's experience with abuse and or failure in achievement of goals makes them angry which motivates them to abuse others or themselves.
Agnew's three sources of strain...
- -Failure in goal achievement
- -Removal of something/someone valued
- -Experience with abuse
Sutherland's differential association theory»
Criminality is learned through association with others who support that behavior.
Sutherland's 2 types of learning that are necessary for criminal behavior...
- -Techniques of crime commission
- -rationalization--That crime is an acceptable behavior
Akers' learning theory...
- says crime is...
- -first learned through direct imitation or modeling
- -the subsequent likelihood of sustaining criminal behavior is determined by differential reinforcement(rewards v punishment for an act)
Akers' learning theory has been successful in explaining...
substance abuse and smoking
Wolfgang's subculture of violence theory...
emphasize violence and saving face-even over small issues(saving face)
What overall question does control theory ask?
What keeps us from committing crime?
Containment theory says...
Inner containment and outer containment keeps boys from committing crime.
What thoeries comprise Power Control Theory?
Control, Conflict, and Feminist Theories.
What is Power Control Theory's purpose?
Explain different rates of male vs. female delinquency.
Social Control Theory asks...
Not what motivates us to do crime, but what keeps us from committing crime.
What are the elements of the bond in social control theory?
- Attachement to significant others
- committment-how important is it for you to do the right thing
- involvement-in conventional activities(least important)
- belief-In conventional values
General theory of crime»self-control theory
must have opportunity plus low self-control
- acts of force or fraud undertaken in pursuit of self-interest "nature of crime"
- 1. immediate gratification
- 2. easy, simple gratification
- 3. exciting, risky
- 4. meager, few long term benefits
- 5. little skill, planning
- 6. pain, discomfort for victim
What are analogous behaviors?
- behaviors which are like crime, but not always criminal:
- smoking, drinking, drugs, over-eating, adultery, tardiness, accidents, gambling, promiscuity
Life course theory says»
- Changes in people's lives can explain persistence in or desistance from crime.
- Our lives have trajectories(life paths) and transitions(major changes in life paths)
What does life course theory say specifically deters adult crime?
- Meaningful, positive relationships:
- Jobs, marriage