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What is the function of lymph nodes?
filter the lymph fluid that flows through the lymph nodes [the lymphocytes remove potentially harmful bacteria]
Where do T cells mature?
in the thymus
What are the functions of the spleen?
- contains numerous macrophages that destroy pathogens as they circulate in the blood that enters the spleen
- disposes of dead erythrocytes
What are lymphocytes?
- cells that are produced in the bone marrow
- several types include: T cells, B cells, and Natural Killer cells
What is the function of Natural Killer cells?
produce toxic materials that directly kill bacteria by putting holes in them
Where do B cells mature?
in the bone marrow
What is the bodies' first line of defense?
nonspecific external barriers such as the skin and mucous membranes
What is the bodies second line of defense?
nonspecific internal defenses such as: phagocytic and NK cells, fever, and inflammation
What is the bodies last line of defense?
a specific immune response: cell-mediated immunity or humoral immunity
What are phagocytic cells?
WBCs that destroy bacteria through phagocytosis
Mast cells release _____.
What are neutrophils?
WBCs that engulf invading microbes
What are Macrophages?
WBCs that engulf invading microbes and present antigens
What are the two types of B cells and what does each do?
- plasma cells: offspring of B cells that secrete antibodies into the blood stream
- memory B cells: offspring of B cells that provide future immunity against invasion by the same antigen
What are the three types of T cells and what does each do?
- cytotoxic T cells: destroy specific targeted cells
- helper T cells: stimulate immune responses by both B cells and cytotoxic T cells
- memory T cells: provide future immunity against invasion of the same antigen
What does humoral immunity target? What type of cell mediates this?
- invaders outside cells [viruses, bacteria, fungi, toxins, etc.]
- B cells
What does cell-mediated immunity target? What type of cell mediates this?
- infected body cells
- T cells
What are antibodies? What are they made by? Are they specific?
- protein produced by a host to bind to and inactivate foreign particles
- B cells
- yes, they have a unique binding site that allows them to bind to only one antigen
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