Name the lymphoid tissue in the lateral wall of the oropharynx
What is the largest meatus located b/w the ventral nasal choncae and the hard palate?
ventral nasal meatus
What does the pull of the cricoartytenoideus dorsalis m on the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage do?
opens the glottic cleft by swinging vocal cords laterally
what is the narrowest part of the laryngeal cavity?
Tow which side of the trachea does the esophagus incline in the middle of the next
How does the cavity of the bony thorax relate to the thoracic cavity
Larger, dome of diaphragm, extends in to bony thorax to 6th intercostal space
The descending duodenum is on what side of the abdomen?
Where is the cecum located?
Right side b/w small and rest of large intestine
List 3 diff types of peritoneum
parietal (wall), visceral and connecting
How are the mesenteries named?
meso + organ to which its connected
Where are the ovaries located in carnivores?
Caudal to kidneys in the sublumbar region
What is the suspensory ligament in carnivores?
Part of broad ligament connecting the ovary to last 1 or 2 ribs
What is the fornix of the vagina?
Ventral recess formed by the cervix projecting in to the vagina
Describe the cat scrotum's location and appearance
Perineal and densely covered by hair
What is the relationship of the ductus deferens to the the ureters?
Loops dorsally over ureters (water under the bridge)
What is the inguinal canal?
Passageway through caudal abd wall
Name the 3 main parts of vaginal tunic
visceral parietal and connecting vaginal tunic
The vaginal cavity is continuous with the___ at the vaginal ring
On what side of the spermatic cord is the ductus deferens?
Define artery and vein
Artery: vessel that carries blood away from the heard; they're generally thicker and stronger than vein to sustain the higher pressure , branch in to capillaries.
Veins: vessel that carries blood towards the heart; thinner walled and carry greater volume than arteries. Capillaries feed in to small veins and in to larger. Valves on veins to prevent back flow of blood
What sp large veins return blood from roughly the cranial and caudal part of body directly to heart?
Cranial and Caudal vena cavae
What are the chambers of the heart in the order they receive blood?
Right Atrium (RA)--> Right ventricle (RV)--> left atrium---> left ventricle
What side of the heart is part of the pulmonic circulation?
What side of the heart is part of the systemic circulation?
What is the outflow of the heart (left side) to the body?
What arteries travel up the neck to supply the head and face?
Common carotid arteries
What vein returns blood from the head and neck?
External Jugular veins
Name the 3 unpaired branches to the abd viscera of the abd aorta
celiac, cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries
Name of the main branches of the terminal aorta
External, internal iliac and 1 median sacral a
What is the main artery to the uterus?
What vessels supply the ventral abd wall? where do they run?
cranial and caudal epigastric; run on the ventral abdomen on either side of symphysis
What is the direct continuation of the external iliac artery out of the abd cavity to the pelvic limb for which it's the main supply?
What is the vascular supply to the ovary?
Ovarian artery and vein in mesovarium
What is the large vein draining the intestine to the sinusoids of the liver?
hepatic portal vein
Where do the ovarian and testicular veins drain?
the right one drains in to the caudal vena cava while the left in to the left renal v.
What vessel crosses the ventral surface of the adrenal gland and are thus a surgical landmark for locating these structures?
Were is the cephalic vein located?
What is the vein on the ventral surface of the tail that is the direct continuation of the median sacral vein?
Median caudal vein
What are the 2 superficial veins of the pelvic limb?
lateral and medial saphenus veins
What vein is on either side of the ventral surface of the tongue?
Lingual vein... sublingual is on the floor of the mouth
Describe the thoracic duct
major lymphatic vessel returning most of lymph from body back in to gen circulation at the venous angle
List the superficial lymph nodes of the body and their locations
What is the flap of skin inside the medial part of the eyelids?
nictictating membrane aka 3rd eyelid
What is the pocket of skin in the caudal edge of the ear?
What do the costal cartilages of the ribs caudal to the sternum form?
What is the lateral area b/w the back legs on the stomach?
What is the most dorsal portion of the flank?
What are the boundaries of the perineum?
Base of the tail, tuber ischii, past the vulva....to the base of the scrotum. Past the scrotum in cats
Where are the openings of the anal glands (clock)
4 & 8 o'clock
What is the depression on either side of the anus?
Where would you find the tibia and fibula?
Crus aka true leg
Where is the clitoris found?
In the ventral commissure of the labia
What is evaluated by a radiograph?
Density and shape
How do the 5 diff densities appear on the film?
water= shades of grey
What is required to see structures in a radiograph that touch each other?
differences in densities
How is a fat friend when reading radiographs?
More radiolucent aka xrays pass through body so darker shadow; contrasts soft tissues ie: parineal fat around the kidney
What is the gen rule of preparation of the animal to make for good radiograph?
What does lead protect against and not protect against in radiology?
lead protects against scatter x-rays but not the primary beam
What do people often try to seen in radiographs but can't since it's 2-D?
Depth; it can't be seen/read
How are radiographs named?
From where the beam enters to where it exits (ie: dorsal/ventral, ventral/dorsal)
Describe how beam enters/exits body in following views:
-right/left lateral projections of major body cavities (abd, thorax)
- cranciocaudeal (CrCa)
- anterior/posterior (AP)
- Dorsopalmar/dorsoplantar (DP)
- Palmardorsal/plantodorsal (PD)
- named for surface closest to cassette
- Beam enters cranial side and exits caudal side of limb
- beam enters anterior side and exits posterior surface of limb
- DP: Shot from front to back, below the proximal end of the carpus/tarsus
- PD: Shot through palmar/plantar side and out dorsal side below proximal end of carpus/tarsus
What should always be check to see if R & L markers are correct? Give example
anatomical landmarks ie: apex of the heart goes left
Where is the gas bubble in the fundus of the stomach?
On what side of the body is the cranial kidney? the caudal kidney?
cranial kidney is right, caudal is left
Anticlinal vertebra is where on the body?
11th thoracic vertebrae...vertically positioned as compared to caudally and cranially inclined vertebrae.
On what side of the body/limb is the head of the humerus?
What side of the body is the:
Distal end of ulna?
Distal end of ulna- lateral and caudal
On what side of body/limb is:
- accessory carpal bone?
accessory carpal bone- lateral and palmar
dewclaw- lateral and medial
On what side of the body/limb is the:
calcaneus- lateral and plantar
Since the radiograph is 2-d, how do you extrapolate the 3rd dimension?
take at least 2 radiographs at 90 degree angles to each other
The different views _____different sides of the bones.
What does the lateral view silhouette?
Lateral view silhouettes organs/bones on cranial and caudal surfaces
Is cartilage seen radiographically?
no, only inferred...not dense enough
How is cartilage evaluated on radiograph?
check subchondral bone
What is the space b/w bones seen in the radiograph?
joint space and articular cartilage
What is the composition of most long bones at birth?
bone capped at both ends with articular cartilage, 2 cartilaginous discs (physes) between the diaphysis and ephiphyses
What are the cartilaginous discs between the diaphysis and the epiphyses?
growth plates= physes
Where does lengthening of bone occur?
At the outer growth plate, ephyseal side
During growth, how does physis appear radiographically?
as black space between ephisyses and diaphysis (radiolucent line)
What should not be mistaken for fractures on a radiograph?
1. growth plates
2. sesamoid bones
What is the normal remnant of the closed of the closed physis?