World History Chapter 13 & 14
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World History Chapter 13 & 14
the middle ages
the gradual decline of the roman empire ushered in an era of european history called...
also called the medieval period
the middle ages
what three things altered government, economy, and culture?
1. disruption of trade
2. downfall of cities
3. population shifts- became mostly rural
In the roman province of Gaul, a germanic people called ______ held power
The leader of the Franks that eventually brought christianity to this region
to adapt to rural conditions, the church built religious communities called _____
the popes office
Charles Martels son, pepin the short, began the righn of the frankish rule called the ______
Pepins son, Charles, was known as _____ or Charles the Great
a military and politicla system based on land ownership and personal loyalty
Germanic people that were also called Northmen and Norsemen, also worshiped warlike gods
a group of nomadic people attacked europe after the viking invasions declined
Instead of settling on the captured land, what did the magyars do?
captured people to sell as slaves
a person recieving a fief
the feudal pyramid
2. nobles and church officials
mounted warriors who pledged to defend their lords land in exchange for fiefs
what 3 group did medievil writers classify people into?
1. those who fought (nobles and knights)
2. those who prayed (men and women of the church)
3. those who worked (peasants)
people who could not lawfully leave the place they were born
what was the difference between serfs and slaves?
serfs could not be sold or bought
the lords estate
the basic economic agreement that rested on a set of rights and obligations between a lord and his serfs
what did peasants pay taxes on?
-all grain ground in the lords mill
a tithe represent ____ of their income
what did the fuedal lords give the knights in exchange for military service?
a complex set of ideals
the code of chivalry
the code of chivalry demanded that a knight fought bravely in defense of what 3 masters
1. feudal lord
2. heavenly lord
3. chosen lady
the ideal knight was ___, ____, ____
loyal, brave, courageous
poet musicians at the castles and courts of europe
In a feudal system what few things could noblewomen do?
-inherit an estate from their husband
-send his knights to war (upon lords request)
-when her husband was off at war, she could act as a military leader or warrior
everlasting life in heaven
important religios ceremonies
the law of the church
the 2 harshest punishments for violating the canon law were?
excommunication and interdict
the strongest kingdom after the death of Charlemagne
Holy Roman Empire
a ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed church officials
A compromise that said the church alone could grant a bishop his ring and staff, symbols of the church office, and the emperor had to right to veto power to prevent the appointment of a bishop
Concordat of Worms
a practice where the positions in the church were sold by bishops
an italian man that founded the franciscans (order of friars)
st. francis of assisi
a holy war
this pope issued a call for a crusade t0o gain control of the holy land
Pope Urban II
what was the goal of the crusade?
torecover Jerusalem and ther Holy land from the muslim turks
what did the kings and the pope see the crusades as?
a time to get rid of the quarrelsome knights who fought each other
how did the merchants make profit in the later crusades?
-making cash loans to finance the crusades
-leased their ships
a muslim leader that jersulem had fallen under
an english king that was the only king left to regain the holy land in the third crusade
Richard the Lion-Hearted
long effort to drive the muslims out spain
a tribunal held by the church to supress heresy
people whose religious beliefs differed from the teachings of the church
a system whee farmers could grow crops on two thirds of their land each year
three- field system
an association of people that worked in the same occupation
a sin that forbid christians from leanding money at interest
the everyday language of their homeland
a scholar that argued the most basic religious truths could be proven by logical argument
duke of Normandy
William the Conqueror
King Henry II added holdings of land in Normandy and England by marrying _______
Eleanor of Aquitaine
what 2 goals did the english kings try to accomplish?
1. wanted to hold and add onto their french lands
2. wanted to strengthen their own power over the nobles and the church
the most celebrated document in english hostory that was drawn up by english nobles
the magna carta (great charter)
what did the nobles want out of the magna carta?
to safeguard their own feudal rights and limit the kings power
what are the guarenteed rights of the magna carta?
-no taxation without representation, a jury trial, and the protection of the law
a legislature group
the knights and burgesses (citizens of wealth and property) formed an assembly called ____: while the bishops and lords met seperately at the __________
the house of commons; house of lords
a powerful capetian that became king at 15 and went out to lessen the power of english kings in france
King Phillip II
king Phillip established royal officials called _____ to strenghten central government in france
Philip II's saintly grandson
Pope Clement V moved from Rome to _______, in France
the split or division in the church
the great schism
an englishmen that preached the true head of the church was Jesus Christ. He also taught that the bible was the final authority for christian life
a professor of Bhemia taught that the authority of the Bible was higher than the pope
who was blamed for bringing on the blubonic plaque by poisoning the wells
how many europeans died from the plaque?
what war broke out when the last capetian died without a succesor?
hundred years' war
a french peasant girl that felt moved by God to rescue france from its english conquerors
joan of arc