World History Chapter 13 & 14

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courtney.ensch
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49054
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World History Chapter 13 & 14
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2010-11-11 23:35:24
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middle ages
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the middle ages
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  1. the gradual decline of the roman empire ushered in an era of european history called...
    also called the medieval period
    the middle ages
  2. what three things altered government, economy, and culture?
    • 1. disruption of trade
    • 2. downfall of cities
    • 3. population shifts- became mostly rural
  3. In the roman province of Gaul, a germanic people called ______ held power
    Franks
  4. The leader of the Franks that eventually brought christianity to this region
    Clovis
  5. to adapt to rural conditions, the church built religious communities called _____
    monasteries
  6. the popes office
    papacy
  7. worldly
    secular
  8. Charles Martels son, pepin the short, began the righn of the frankish rule called the ______
    Carolingian Dynasty
  9. Pepins son, Charles, was known as _____ or Charles the Great
    Charlemagne
  10. a military and politicla system based on land ownership and personal loyalty
    feudalism
  11. Germanic people that were also called Northmen and Norsemen, also worshiped warlike gods
    Vikings
  12. a group of nomadic people attacked europe after the viking invasions declined
    Magyars
  13. Instead of settling on the captured land, what did the magyars do?
    captured people to sell as slaves
  14. landowner
    lord
  15. granted land
    fief
  16. a person recieving a fief
    vassal
  17. the feudal pyramid
    • 1. king
    • 2. nobles and church officials
    • 3. knights
    • 4.peasants
  18. mounted warriors who pledged to defend their lords land in exchange for fiefs
    knights
  19. what 3 group did medievil writers classify people into?
    • 1. those who fought (nobles and knights)
    • 2. those who prayed (men and women of the church)
    • 3. those who worked (peasants)
  20. people who could not lawfully leave the place they were born
    serfs
  21. what was the difference between serfs and slaves?
    serfs could not be sold or bought
  22. the lords estate
    manor
  23. the basic economic agreement that rested on a set of rights and obligations between a lord and his serfs
    manor system
  24. what did peasants pay taxes on?
    • -all grain ground in the lords mill
    • -marriage
    • -church
  25. village priest
    tithe
  26. a tithe represent ____ of their income
    1/10
  27. what did the fuedal lords give the knights in exchange for military service?
    land
  28. a complex set of ideals
    the code of chivalry
  29. the code of chivalry demanded that a knight fought bravely in defense of what 3 masters
    • 1. feudal lord
    • 2. heavenly lord
    • 3. chosen lady
  30. the ideal knight was ___, ____, ____
    loyal, brave, courageous
  31. tournaments
    mock battle
  32. poet musicians at the castles and courts of europe
    troubadours
  33. In a feudal system what few things could noblewomen do?
    • -inherit an estate from their husband
    • -send his knights to war (upon lords request)
    • -when her husband was off at war, she could act as a military leader or warrior
  34. religious officials
    clergy
  35. everlasting life in heaven
    salvation
  36. important religios ceremonies
    sacraments
  37. the law of the church
    canon law
  38. the 2 harshest punishments for violating the canon law were?
    excommunication and interdict
  39. the strongest kingdom after the death of Charlemagne
    Holy Roman Empire
  40. a ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed church officials
    lay inversture
  41. A compromise that said the church alone could grant a bishop his ring and staff, symbols of the church office, and the emperor had to right to veto power to prevent the appointment of a bishop
    Concordat of Worms
  42. a practice where the positions in the church were sold by bishops
    simony
  43. an italian man that founded the franciscans (order of friars)
    st. francis of assisi
  44. a holy war
    crusade
  45. this pope issued a call for a crusade t0o gain control of the holy land
    Pope Urban II
  46. what was the goal of the crusade?
    torecover Jerusalem and ther Holy land from the muslim turks
  47. what did the kings and the pope see the crusades as?
    a time to get rid of the quarrelsome knights who fought each other
  48. how did the merchants make profit in the later crusades?
    • -making cash loans to finance the crusades
    • -leased their ships
  49. a muslim leader that jersulem had fallen under
    Saladin
  50. an english king that was the only king left to regain the holy land in the third crusade
    Richard the Lion-Hearted
  51. long effort to drive the muslims out spain
    reconquista
  52. a tribunal held by the church to supress heresy
    inquisition
  53. people whose religious beliefs differed from the teachings of the church
    heretics
  54. a system whee farmers could grow crops on two thirds of their land each year
    three- field system
  55. an association of people that worked in the same occupation
    guild
  56. a sin that forbid christians from leanding money at interest
    unsury
  57. town dwellers
    burghers
  58. the everyday language of their homeland
    vernacular
  59. wrote the Divine Comedy in italian
    Dante Alighieri
  60. wrote the Canterberry Tales in english
    Geoffrey Chaucer
  61. a scholar that argued the most basic religious truths could be proven by logical argument
    Thomas Aquinas
  62. duke of Normandy
    William the Conqueror
  63. King Henry II added holdings of land in Normandy and England by marrying _______
    Eleanor of Aquitaine
  64. what 2 goals did the english kings try to accomplish?
    • 1. wanted to hold and add onto their french lands
    • 2. wanted to strengthen their own power over the nobles and the church
  65. the most celebrated document in english hostory that was drawn up by english nobles
    the magna carta (great charter)
  66. what did the nobles want out of the magna carta?
    to safeguard their own feudal rights and limit the kings power
  67. what are the guarenteed rights of the magna carta?
    -no taxation without representation, a jury trial, and the protection of the law
  68. a legislature group
    parliment
  69. the knights and burgesses (citizens of wealth and property) formed an assembly called ____: while the bishops and lords met seperately at the __________
    the house of commons; house of lords
  70. a powerful capetian that became king at 15 and went out to lessen the power of english kings in france
    King Phillip II
  71. king Phillip established royal officials called _____ to strenghten central government in france
    bailiffs
  72. Philip II's saintly grandson
    Louis IX
  73. Pope Clement V moved from Rome to _______, in France
    Avignom
  74. the split or division in the church
    the great schism
  75. an englishmen that preached the true head of the church was Jesus Christ. He also taught that the bible was the final authority for christian life
    John Wycliffe
  76. a professor of Bhemia taught that the authority of the Bible was higher than the pope
    Jan Hus
  77. who was blamed for bringing on the blubonic plaque by poisoning the wells
    Jews
  78. how many europeans died from the plaque?
    25 million
  79. what war broke out when the last capetian died without a succesor?
    hundred years' war
  80. a french peasant girl that felt moved by God to rescue france from its english conquerors
    joan of arc

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