Bio Exam 3

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jax12
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49066
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Bio Exam 3
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2010-11-11 22:44:51
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Bio Exam 3
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  1. spontaneous generation
    life appears from both nonliving matter and from other unrelated forms of life
  2. Francisco Redi
    • 1668
    • disproved maggots from meat hypothesis
  3. Louis Pasteur and John Tyndall
    • 1880's
    • disproved broth to microorganism hypothesis
  4. molecules required for life
    • amino acids for proteins
    • nucleic acids to make DNA
    • lipids and fats to make membranes
  5. experiments of Miller and Urey
    • conclusion: building blocks for life can arise chemically
    • made RNA building blocks
  6. self replication
    when a molecule can direct its own and other molecules creation
  7. speculation - primordial soup
    • tidal pools containing molecules dry up and refill creating a soup of complex molecules and chemical reactions
    • prebiotic
  8. montmorillonite clays
    • microcrystal from volcanic rock bentonite
    • catalyze formation of membranes
    • catalyze RNA polymerization
  9. RNA
    • self replicates
    • prebiotic
    • original lifeform may have been RNA based
  10. membranes
    • prebiotic
    • made of lipids and fats
    • montmorillonite clays catalyze formation of membranes
  11. psnspermia
    life exists throughout the universe and is distributed by meteorites, comets, etc.
  12. deinococcus radiodurans
    • a bacterium that can survive the vacuum, cold, radiation, acid
    • can blow it up and it can reassemble itself
  13. speculation on origins of life
    • required molecules were likely present
    • some molecules (RNA) are known to self replicate
    • rNA can be used as a coding system
    • membranes spontaneously form creating an identity
  14. earth formed
    4.5 bya
  15. oldest fossils found so far
    3.5 bya
  16. oldest rocks are
    moon rocks
  17. dating rocks
    • look for radioactive elements
    • half of K turns into Ar every 1.25 billion yrs (half life)
  18. first organisms on earth
    • prokaryotes
    • no oxygen
    • anaerobic prokaryotes - didn't breathe oxygen
  19. endosymbiosis
    organisms got organelles
  20. eukaryotic cell
    • has a nucleus
    • has organelles
  21. organelles
    membrane bound structures in the cytoplasm of eukaryotes that perform specific functions
  22. mitochondria
    • organelle that combines oxygen with organic molecules to harvest energy
    • powerhouse of cell
  23. chloroplast
    organelle of plant cells that traps the energy of sunlight and sythesizes organic fuels (sugar)
  24. origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts
    • prokaryotic cell engulfs an aerobic bacterium
    • descendants of bacterium evolve into mitochondria
    • chloroplasts evolved from photosynthetic bacterium being engulfed
  25. oldest fossil of multicell algae appeared ? y.a.
    1.2 bya
  26. first animal body fossils appear
    650 to 550 mya
  27. fossils from Cambrian period
    544 mya
  28. Silurian period
    • 440 mya
    • predator/prey in animal kingdom
  29. 4 adaptations to life on land for reptiles
    • internal fertilization - dont need a pond to hold eggs
    • shelled, waterproof eggs - wouldnt dry out
    • scaly waterproof skin
    • improved lungs - dont need to breathe through skin
  30. mammal abilities
    • live birth
    • lactation
    • hair for insulation
  31. mass extinctions
    • Permian 225 mya
    • Triassic 220 mya
    • mostly attributed to climate change caused by plate techtonics, volcanic eruptions, large meteorites
  32. primate traits
    • opposable thumbs
    • binocular vision - parallax vision
    • fingernails
  33. primate to human traits
    • bipedalism
    • big brains
    • locking knees
  34. lunate sulcus
    impression of the brains shape on the skull
  35. humans evolved from primates called the
    • dryopithecines
    • hominids separated from pongids
  36. first hominid fossils
    4.4 mya
  37. pongid
    • tailless ape
    • 48 chromosomes
  38. human ancestors
    • ardipithicus ramidus
    • australopithicus afarensis - Lucy
    • homo ergaster - led to neanderthals who made tools
    • homo neandershalus
    • homo heidel-bergensis
    • homo sapiens - 150 kya/ also Cro magnons - wall art

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