Physiology Test 4

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princesspink21
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49070
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Physiology Test 4
Updated:
2010-11-17 02:43:29
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Physiology
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Heart, blood vessels, Immune System, Respiratory
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  1. Skeletal muscle fiber types:
    • Slow Twitch Oxidation (Type I)
    • Fast Twitch Oxidation-Glycolytic (Type IIa)
    • Fast Twitch Flycolytic (Type IIb)
  2. Hemoglobin:
    O2 binding pigment in red blood cells
  3. Myoglobin:
    O2 binding pigment in skeletal muscle
  4. What determines if the muslce is a fast or slow twitch?
    Myosin ATPase activity
  5. Affinity:
    • the degree to which a protein is attracted to its ligand
    • myoglobin > hemoglobin
  6. Slow-twitch oxidative fibers:
    smaller diameter, darker color, fatigue resistant
  7. Fast-twitch glyolytic muscle fibers:
    large diameter, pale color, easily fatigued
  8. What increases muscle mass?
    • increasing muscle fiber diameter (increased # of myofibrils) = hypertrophy
    • not muscle fiber # = hyperplasia
  9. Duration of muscle contraction:
    Skelatal < Cardiac < Smooth
  10. Two types of smooth muscle:
    • Single unit smooth muscle
    • Multi unit smooth muscle
  11. Single unit smooth muscle:
    • Neuron stimulates cell then cell stimulates other cells through gap junctions
    • EX - intestine, respiratory
  12. Multi unit smooth muscle:
    • neurons have to respong with actual muscle cell
    • EX - cilliary body in eye
  13. Smooth muscle does use actin and myosin but...
    • not sacromere-based
    • much longer chains
    • dense bodies - proteins that clamp down and hold bundles together
  14. Smooth Muscle Contraction:
    • Intracellular Ca++ concentrations increase when Ca++ enters cell and is released from sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • Ca++ binds to calmodulin (CaM)
    • Ca++-calmodulin activates myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)
    • MLCK phosphorylates light chains in myosin heads and increases myosin ATPase activity
    • Active myosin crossbridges slide along actin and create muscle tension
    • (Ca++ regulation of phosphorylation – no troponin)
  15. Three components of Cardivascualar system:
    • blood
    • blood vessels
    • heart
  16. Cardiovascular functions:
    • Efficiently distribute oxygen, nutrients, ect to bodys cells
    • remove wastes from these same cells (ex-CO2)
    • important for thermoregulation
  17. Two circuits:
    • Pulmonary circuit
    • systemic circuit
  18. Pulmonary circuit
    blood flow between heart and lungs
  19. systemic circuit
    blood flow between heart and rest of body
  20. Right side of heart receives:
    deoxygenated blood from systemic circuit - send to pulmonary circuit
  21. Left side of heart receives:
    oxygenated blood from systemic circuit - sends to systemic circuit
  22. 2 fetal bypasis:
    • foramen oval (fetus) - Fossa ovalis (born) b/w right and left atriums
    • arterial duct (fetus) - aterial ligament (born) b/w pulmonary arteries and aorta
  23. myogenic:
    • contractions are the result of signals generated by the muscle itself (not external signals from the NS)
    • cardiac muscle is myogenic
  24. Autorhythmicity-
    the ability to spontaneously produce action potentials in a periodic, repeatable manner
  25. Pacemaker -
    autorhythmic cells that synchronize the contractile cells in cardiac muscle
  26. Pacemakers are in what two regions of the heart?
    • sinoatrial (SA) node
    • Atrioventicular (AV) node
  27. How are cardiac muscles similar to skeletal muscles?
    • Functional unit of contraction = sarcomere
    • Contractions occur via cross-bridge cycling
  28. How are cardiac muscles different from skeletal muscles?
    • Communication b/w cells by gap junctions
    • long duration action potentials (2 vs 300)
    • no summation of muscle contractions - prevents tetanus
    • skeletal muscle fast twitch fiber: refractory period is short compared with time required for the development of tension
    • Cardiac muscle fiber: refractory period lasts almost as long as the entire muscle twitch
    • Skeletal muscles when stimulated repeatedly will have summation and tetanus
    • Cardiac muscle: long refractory period prevents tetanus
  29. Sequence of action potential generation through heart:
    • SA node depolarizes
    • Electrical activity goes rapidly to AV node via intermodal pathways (top-down)
    • Depolarization (or contraction) spreads more slowly across atria. Conduction slows through AV node because of the fibrous barrier.
    • Depolarization moves rapidly through ventricular conducting system (b/w both ventricals) to the apex (bottom) of the heart
    • Depolarization wave spreads upward from the apex (bottom- up)
  30. P wave:
    • first small bump
    • strial depolarization
  31. QRS Complex:
    • Second trianglular tower
    • ventrial depolarization
    • atrial polarization
  32. T wave:
    • small bump after
    • ventrical repolarization
  33. Typical beats/min:
    60-100 beats/min
  34. > 100 beats/min
    • abnormal
    • sinus tachycardia
  35. < 60 beats/min
    sinus bradycardia
  36. Atrial fibrillation:
    • SA node failure
    • associated with 15% of strokes due to blood clots
    • looks like really fast heart beats
  37. Ventricular fabrillation:
    • loss of ventricle ability to pump blood
    • very serious - leads to death in minutes
    • looks like squiggles
  38. Cardiac Arrest:
    • sudden loss of regular heartbeat
    • loss of consciousness
    • without intervention = death
    • fabrillation = loss of synchronization
  39. Heart attack:
    • myocarding infraction - inadequate O2 supply to the heart muscles
    • preceded by pain
    • lead to death
    • no collateral circulation
    • blockage = heart attack
    • coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery
  40. Cardiac Cycle:
    all events associated with the flow of blood through the heart during a single heartbeat
  41. Heartbeat:
    one complete cycle of atrial and ventricular contraction and relaxation
  42. Systole:
    period of cardiac muscle contraction
  43. Diastole:
    period of cardiac muscle relaxation
  44. Blood pressure:
    systolic pressure over diastolic pressure
  45. Heart rate:
    • number of ventricular contraction/min
    • resting average: 70 beats/min
  46. Stroke volume:
    • amnt of blood pumped per ventricular contraction
    • resting average = 70 mL
  47. Cardiac Output:
    (heart rate) x (stroke volume)
  48. Factors Affecting cardiac output:
    • changes in heart rate
    • changes in stroke volume
  49. Ventricular contractility
    • force with which the ventricles contract
    • depends on end-diastolic volume
  50. Parasympathetic does what?
    • slows heart rate
    • less action potentials
    • ACh
  51. Sympathetic does what?
    • Speed up heart rate
    • more action potentials
    • norepinephrine
  52. Ventricular contractility
    • force with which the ventricles contract
    • changes in stroke volume depend on this
  53. Tbx5
    • transcription factor - protein that turns on/off other genes
    • found in all vertebrates hearts
    • different timing/activity levels
    • congenital defect in ventricular septum
    • experiments can produce 3 chambered heart
  54. Cardiovascular System (blood flow):
    right atrium --> tricuspid valve --> right ventricle --> pulmonary valve --> pulmonary artery --> capillaries (lungs) --> pulmonary vein --> left atrium --> mitral valve --> left ventricle --> aortic valve --> aorta --> elastic arteries --> capillaries (exchange of material w/cells) --> venules --> expandable veins --> venae cavae --> back to right atrium
  55. blood vessels posses lumen which is?
    a hollow opeing though which blood flows
  56. arteries
    • conduct blood away from heart
    • elastic and fibrous connective tissue
    • smooth muscle
    • can withstand higher blood pressures
  57. arterioles
    • smaller than arteries
    • blood from arteries to capillaries
    • small amnt of connective tissue
    • large amnt of smooth muscle
  58. capillaries
    • smallest blood vessel
    • most numerous
    • no muscle or connective tissue
    • lumen formed by epithelial tissue
    • single cell layer
    • function: exchange of materials (nutrients, wastes) b/w cells and blood
  59. Veins
    • conduct blood to the heart
    • large lumens (thin walls)
    • less connective tissue and smooth muscle than arteries
    • lower blood pressure than arteries
    • peripheral veins (outside thoracic cavity) contain on-way valves
    • some exchange with cells occurs
  60. venules
    • smaller than veins
    • blood form capillaries to veins
    • little connective tissue and smooth muscle
    • some exchange with cells occurs
  61. What is the most abundant cell in blood?
    • Erythrocytes
    • lack nuclei, mitochondria, ribosomes
    • function: transport O2 and CO2
  62. What is hemoglobin composed of?
    • 4 protein globin chains centered around a heme group
    • two alpha chains and two beta chains
    • Heme group consists of a porphyrin ring with an iron atom in the center
  63. Platelets
    • fragmetns of bone marrow cells that broke off
    • smaller than erythrocytes
    • less numerous
    • importan in blood clot formation
  64. Hemostasis
    • Thrombus (blood clot) formation
    • 1. vasoconstriction - paracrine release
    • 2a. platelet plug - inactive - active
    • 2b. coagulation (fibrinogen - fibrin) - clot formation ((need anticoagulants to help prevent infarcts))
    • 3. vessel repair - clot dissolves (plasmin)
  65. infarct
    tissue deprived of blood by inappropriate clot
  66. Whales/dolphins lack?
    lack factor XII - still clot
  67. Puffer fish lacks?
    lack intrinsic pathway - still clot
  68. cooption:
    when a feature that evolved under a set of conditions becomes used for additional or different purposes
  69. antigen
    substance that triggers immune response
  70. Sever Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
    • Nov 2002 - hit china first
    • w/in 8 weeks --> 3 cont, 24 contries
    • 774 deaths
  71. Immunology
    studies physiological defenses by which the body distinguishes self from non self
  72. immune system functions:
    • protection agianst diseas causing invaders (pathogens)
    • isolate or remove non microbial foreign substances
    • recognize/remove abnormal cells
  73. Two types of microbes:
    • viruses - nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat (dependent on host)
    • bacteria - prokaryotes (can live outside of host)
  74. Immune cells found where?
    blood, lymph, and tissues
  75. White blood cells called?
    leukocytes
  76. Basophilis & mast cells
    • white blood cells
    • purple dots all over
    • % = rare
    • function: release chemial taht mediate inflammation and allergic response
  77. Neutrophilis
    • white blood cells
    • purple smudge - looks like C in the center of cell
    • % - 50-70%
    • function: ingest and destroy invaders (blood)
  78. Eosinophils
    • white blood cell
    • orange with purple blob C in the middle
    • % - 1-3 %
    • function: destroy invaders, particularly antibody-coated parasites
  79. Monocytes & Macrophages
    • white blood cell
    • larger blue with purple circle in the center
    • % - 1-6%
    • function: ingest and destroy invaders; antegin presentation (tissue)
  80. Lymphocytes and plasma cells
    • blue with large purple circle and purple lines around purple circle
    • % - 20-35%
    • function: specific responses to invaders, including antibody production
  81. Dendritic cells
    • starfish like
    • function: to recognize pathogens and activate other immune cells by antigen presentation
  82. The lymphatic system
    • passive flow
    • one way valves
    • returns to venous circulation at right and left lymph ducts
    • - thymus gland
    • - bone marrow
  83. Structures of lymph node
    • lymph node artery and vein (top)
    • efferent lymph vessel - top vessel
    • afferent lymph vessel - bottom vessel
    • capsule - outer shell
    • clusters of immune cells intercept pathogens that invade interstitial fluid
  84. Types of Immune response:
    • Innate (non specific) immunity
    • Acquired (specific) immunity
  85. antibodies
    work agianst foreign bodies by binding to antigens
  86. 5 classes of antibodies:
    • IgG - 75% - blood plasma - secondary immune response
    • IgA - external secretions (saliva, tears)
    • IgE - allergic respnses
    • IgM - primary immune - blood group antigens
    • IgD - associated w/ IgM's but unclear still
  87. When immune system goes wrong?
    • Incorrect response - auoimmune diseases (failure to distinguish self from non self) ex) diabetes
    • Overactive response - allergies (response out of proportion to threat posed)
    • No response - immunodeficiencies (primary - genetic defect / acquired - infection)
  88. Immune function in mate choice?
    woman like men with gens different from thiers
  89. Two types of respiratory:
    • internal respiratory (cellular)
    • external respiratory (breathing)
  90. four processes of respiration:
    • pulmonary ventilation - inspiration/ expiration
    • exchange of O2 and CO2
    • transportation O2 and Co2 (blood)
    • Exchange of O2 and CO2 (blood - cells)
  91. other functions of the respiratory system:
    • vocalization
    • defense against pathogens
    • help in maintaining body pH
    • dissipating water and heat
  92. Anatomy largest to smallest in the lungs:
    Larynx (vocal cords) --> trachea --> primary bronchi --> smaller bronchi --> bronchioles --> alveoli
  93. Cells in the alveolar structure:
    • Type 1 alveolar cell - gas exchange (cells that make up the circles)
    • Type II - secrete surfactant - keeps cell lubricated for movement (random yellow blobs)
    • Endothelial cell of capillary (larger read cells around capillary)
    • Alveolar macrophage - ingest foreign material (purple blobs)
  94. Two physical properties affecting pulmonary ventilation:
    • Air pressure gradient b/w atmosphere and alveoli
    • airway resistance (diameter)
    • bronchoconstriction
    • bronchodialation

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