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Emergent Readers and Writers (pre-kindergarten through first grade)
Children in this phase benefit from: seeing reading and writing modeled through listening to good stories and seeing others write meaningful messages supported practice while reading engaging, predictable books with pictures that clearly relate to and illustrate the story line encouragement to experiment with writing experience with sorting words and pictures to build letter and sound recognition (see phonemic awareness ) experience with rhyming and other word play activities that engage students in using oral and written language
the knowledge and understandings of the world that students have acquired through their everyday experiences -- riding in cars or buses, playing and talking with other children and adults, that help them to make sense of the texts they read.
two or more individuals reading aloud from the same text -- this can help students to develop oral reading fluency.
Concepts About Print/Conventions of Print
the understandings an individual has about the rules or accepted practices that govern the use of print and the use of written language. For example concepts about print include: reading left to right, top to bottom, words are made of letters, use of spaces between words, use of upper case letters, spelling patterns, punctuation, etc.
a process of making sense of text; by connecting one's own knowledge with the print readers "build" an understanding of what the text is about.
Meaning or Semantics
Readers use their background knowledge of vocabulary and word understanding. They also use the context of the sentence, the paragraph or the whole text to figure out what the text is about, and what would make sense.
Cueing and Self Monitoring Systems
Successful independent reading involves integrating three sets of cues, Meaning or Semantics; Syntax or Language Structure; Visual information or graphophonics. Efficient readers use all three to predict, confirm and self correct as they read.
referring to the relationship between the letters and the letter sounds of a language.
spelling that is in the standard or correct form for written documents.
Guided or Supported Reading
a method by which an experienced reader provides structure and purpose, and models strategies in order to move beginning readers towards independence.
drawing meaning from a combination of clues in the text without explicit reference to the text. "The sky was dark and cloudy so I took my umbrella." We can infer that it might rain even thought the text does not say that.
an attempt by beginning writers to spell a word when the standard spelling is unknown, using whatever knowledge of sounds or visual patterns the writer has.
KWL chart (Know, Want to know, Learned)
a pre-reading or during reading activity to support understanding in which adult and child develop a chart organized in three columns: 1) things the child already Knows about a specified topic, 2) what the child Wants to know about the same topic, and 3) what the child Learns about the topic after reading about it.
Language Experience Approach
a method of teaching reading by using the reader's own dictated language.
the organization of words (both spoken and written) into meaningful segments (phrases or sentences) using conventions of grammar and syntax.
the identification of individual letters by name and/or sound in a variety of contexts.
making a connection between individual letters and the sounds they represent (graphophonics).
a reading approach based on highly regular spelling patterns. Such as: Nat the cat sat on the mat.
any substitution of a word in a text that a reader makes.
an examination of reading errors or substitutions (miscues) as the basis for determining the strengths and weaknesses of students' reading skills.
an experienced readers' oral reading of a text to aid students in learning strategies, understanding intonation and expression, and the use of punctuation, among other aspects of reading.
Pattern Story or Cumulative Story:
a story that has many elements or language patterns repeated until the climax; a predictable text.
awareness of the sound system of spoken language including individual sounds, rhyming, components of words, etc.
the letter/sound relationships in language, and also the relationship of spelling patterns to sound patterns.
teaching reading and spelling in a way that stresses the connection between letters and the sounds they represent, teaches the dissection of words into parts and then blending the sounds together again. Phonics can be taught directly or can be incorporated in ongoing reading and writing.
- Used for phonemic awareness.
Rhyming and segmenting words and sentences.
5 parts of phonemic awareness
- 1. Phonics
- 2. Fluency
- 3. Vocabulary
- 4. Comprehension
- 5. Word Study
The consonant(s) before the first vowel (e.g. in the word "cat" the letter "c" is the onset).
The letters following the first vowel (e.g. in the word "cat" the letters "-at" are the rime).
- Words with similar rimes:
The systematic relationship between letters and sounds.
Accurate and rapid naming or reading of letters, sentences, or passages.
Activities to promote fluency
- Choral reading
- whisper reading
- Echo reading
- Tape-recorded readings
- Partner reading
One minute, oral, standardized, individually administered assessment for fluency.
Reading a text phrase by phrase.
Activities for Vocab.
- 1. Using examples and nonexamples
- 2. Synonyms
- 3. Describing the definition in your own words
- 3. Word map (semantic map)
- 4. Discuss with partner
- Describes the various meanings of the word.
The active process of constructing meaning from a text.
Tool for organizing information in a text.
A way to keep track of setting, characters, conflicts, etc.
Used for Vocabulary. Different themes: science, word families, holidays, focused on one letter, civil war, etc.
Easily recognizable signs (Cheerios, McDonald's).
Developing stage of literacy
Becoming more independent in writing, reading, speaking (middle of 1st grade- late 2nd grade).
Transitional reading stage
Spend more time in independent reading (2nd grade +)
Pre-communication stage of writing
Randomly uses letters
Uses some letters correctly
Spells words the way they sound.
Uses correct spelling and phonetic spelling
Correct spelling stage
Uses words correctly.
Disadvantages of the phonics method
- 1. Not the best for visual learners
- 2. Rules do not hold true for every circumstance
- 3. Inconsistence create confusion
Advantages for phonics
- 1. Gives tools for decoding words
- 2. Auditory learns do well
- 3. Strong emphasis on letter/sound connection helps with spelling
Grammatical hints, increases comprehension, the way words function.
Meaning clues (from the text)
Supporting students (demonstrating, guiding)
- 1. Prior knowledge
- 2. Predicting what will happen
- 3. Visualizing
- 4. Inferences
- 5. Determining important ideas
- 6. Synthesizing info
- 7. Repairing understanding
- 8. Confirming
- 9. Using parts of the book
- 10. Reflecting
Types of Lit.
- Basals (textbooks)
- Prewriting (brainstorming)
Tests word-identification and fluency in oral reading.
Form of assessment for comprehension (can use rubric).