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What disease conditions are caused by Klebsiella?
- Metritis in mares
- mastitis in cows (wood shaving associated)
- UTI in dogs
- Otitis externa in dogs
- Resp. infections, septicemia, diarrhea in companion birds
What disease conditions are caused by Klebsiella but not by E.coli and vice versa?
- E.coli produces diarrhea whereas Klebsiella only produces diarrhea in companion birds
- Klebsiella produces Otitis externa in dogs
- Mastitis caused by klebsiella is the result of wood shavings
What is a characteristic of Klebsiella when viewed on blood agar? Mac?
- forms a thick mucoid capsule on BA
- LF on Mac (PINK)
What should be done before treatment of Klebsiella with an antimicrobial?
Culture and sensitivity testing as Klebsiella is highly resistant to many antibacterials
What does Salmonella look like on Blood Agar and MAC?
- Grows on blood agar
- Clear on MAC as it is a non-lactose fermenter
What can be used to properly ID suspected Salmonella cultures?
- slide agglutination test with polyvalent antiserum
- ie identification via serology due to its multitude of serovars
What are the major species of Salmonella and which is more pathogenic?
- S. enterica (more pathogenic)
- S. bongori
Where is Salmonella found?
food animals, birds, rats, mice, fish can all be carriers
fish meal, bone meal, and milk products
What is the mechanism by which salmonella is transmitted?
- stress, antibiotic overuse, and fasting lead to the colonization and fecal shedding of salmonella
- can be picked up by other animals
This is especially true of tetracylcins in horses which serve to kill useful bacteria and contribute to the spread of salmonella
What are the clinical manifestations of Salmonella?
- ENTERITIS (mucus, fibrin, blood)
- SEPTICEMIA (fever, depression, death)
- ABORTION (septicemia in pregnant animals leads to abortion)
What is a main difference between the clinical manifestations of Salmonella vs. E.coli?
E.coli does not cause abortion in affected animals
How can salmonella become septic? What is a possible sequele of septicemia?
- necrotizing ulcerative gut lesions lead to septicemia
- septicemia can lead to pneumonia, cyanosis of the extremitites
Which serovar of Salmonella can cause disease across species?
What serovars of salmonella can effect horses and what diseases do they cause?
- S typhimuruim mostly (associated with stress and immuno def)
- causes diarrhea, endotoxemia, death in foals
What serovars cause disease is dogs? poultry? swine? cats? cattle? of salmonella
- Dogs and cats: rare to have clinical dx
- Poultry: S. gallinarum, and S. pullorum can cause enteritis and septicemia though not common in canada
- poultry can also be common carriers
- Swine: S. typhimurium ( enteritis) and S. choleraesuis (septicemia)
- Cattle: S. typhimurium and S. dublin both of which cause enteritis, septicemia and abortion
What is the pathogenesis of Salmonella?
- Colonize in the small intestine and invade the enterocytes to cause inflammation and therefore diarrhea
- Macrophages and neutrophils, blood and lymphatics to the tissue and endotoxin mediated fever and vascular damage