BIOLOGY Chemical Basis of Life
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What is an organic compound?
A compound that contains a carbon-hydrogen bond
What is an inorganic compound?
A compound that does not contain a carbon-hydrogen bond
What is the importance of carbohydrates?
- It is the main source of energy for our bodies. They are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio.
- Ex: Glucose C6H12O63 major catergories:
- 1. monosaccharides
- 2. disaccharides
- 3. polysaccharides
What is the importance of lipids?
- They store energy, are chemical messangers (hormones) and provide insulation. They are waxy, oily and do not dissolve well in water. They contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
- Types of lipids:
- 1. saturated fats (solids)
- 2. unsaturated fats (liquids)
- 3. sterols (cholesterol, testosterone, etc.)
What is the importance of proteins?
- They carry out chemical reactions in our bodies and repair cells. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Amino acids compose proteins.
- Special proteins called enzymes increase the speed of a chemical reaction, but are not used up in the reaction (decrease the amount of energy needed for a reaction to start)
What is the importance of nucleic acids?
They are used in the expression of the genetic code (DNA and RNA). They contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorous and are made of nucleotides.
What is a monomer?
A smaller compound made with only one compound
What is a polymer?
Monomers that are joined toghether by chemical bonds; A compound made of many compounds
What is the importance of a catalyst?
A catalyst does not get used up, but it speeds up a process. So, when enzymes speed up chemical reactions, but do not get used up, they can be used to speed up more reactions.
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