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How is choice and preference investigated in the laboratory? What is the behavioral measure of choice and preference?
By arranging concurrent schedules of reinforcement
- Two or more simple schedules are simultaneously available on different response keys
- Each key has its own schedule
- Organism is free distribute Bx between the alternative schedules
The distribution of time and Bx among the response options
What is the major dependent variable in choice experiments? How about the independent variable?
- IV= interval
- DV= time spent responding to a button
Be able to identify the differences between Concurrent Ratio and Interval schedules. Which schedule is commonly used in choice experiments and why?
VI because Ration schedules result in exclusive responding to schedule of highest rate of payoff and does not account for choice
Write down and explain the components of the matching equation
- Matching b/t relative rate of reinforcement and responding
- Ba\(Ba +Bb) = Ra\(Ra+Rb)
- Ba\(Ba +Bb)
- Ba = rate of response on option A
- Bb = rate of response on option B
- Ra = Schedule of reinforcement on option A
- Rb = Schedule of reinforcement on option A
Based on a matching analysis, why would a child not comply with his/her mother’s requests?
What is behavioral economics?
The use of basic economic principles to analyze, predict and control bx in choice situations.
State the Ainslie-Rachlin Principle
Reinforcement value decreases as the delay b/t making a choice and obtaining the reinforcer increases
Arbitrary events whose reinforcing effectiveness depends on a learning history are called conditioned reinforcers and symbolized as Sr. (Some prefer the term Learned Reinforcer). Memorize this definition.
How do we demonstrate the effectiveness of a conditioned reinforcer?
The arrange a contingency b/t some other operant and the CR. If the operant rate increases the CR id effective
We usually study conditioned reinforcers by arranging chain schedules. Describe a chain schedule
Two or more simple schedules, presented sequentially, and is signaled by an arbitrary stimulus. Only the terminal link in the chain results in reinforcement.
What is the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous chains?
- HOMO = similar topography of response in each component
- Hetero = different topography of response in each chain
There are several factors that determine the effectiveness of a stimulus as a conditioned reinforcer. These are
(1) Frequency of primary.unconditioned reinforcement: The effectiveness of a conditioned reinforcer depends on the frequency of primary reinforcement correlated with it. As the frequency of primary reinforcers goes up, so does the strength of the conditioned reinforcer.
(2) Variability of primary reinforcement: Variability (different rates of payoff) affects the strength of a conditioned reinforcer,
(3) MOs: The effectiveness of a conditioned reinforcer is dependent upon the primary reinforcer’s MO.
(4) Delay to primary reinforcement: The longer the delay between a stimulus and a primary reinforcer, the less effective the stimulus is as a conditioned reinforcer. Be able to describe the factors that affect the strength of conditioned reinforcers.
How does a stimulus become a conditioned reinforcer?
Usually a stimulus becomes a conditioned reinforcer by being paired with an unconditioned reinforcer or with another conditioned reinforcer
Describe the two accounts of conditioned reinforcement
- All SD are CR
- All SD are not CR
Be able to describe Egger and Miller’s experiment.
Rats were reinforced with food, following the presentation of multiple S1 and S2
- S1 was presented followed by S2 both were terminated when food was delivered. ONLY S1 became CR because S2 is redundant
- S1 and S2 were presented again but now sometimes S1 is presented alone, however food only followed the presentation of S1 and S2. ONLY S2 became CR
Be able to state the delay-reduction hypothesis
Stimuli that are closer in time to positive reinforcement or further in time from aversive stimuli are more effective
Read the description of the two-key concurrent chains procedure. I will further explain during the lecture how the delay reduction hypothesis is investigated in laboratory.
The bird should choose the shorter schedule, which ever schedule has the shortest delay to reinforcement
Diamond pattern acts as an SD for pecking for food and a CR for the initial choice of schedule
What are generalized conditioned reinforcers? Give examples of generalized reinforcers. What is the advantage of using generalized conditioned reinforcers?
- - Any stimulus that is associated with or exchangeable for many sources of unconditioned reinforcement.
- - Money, tokens,
- - Advantage= not dependent on deprivation or satiation for ant specific reinforcer
What is COD
Change over delay. A control procedure used to stop rapid switching b/t alternatives. After switching b/t two buttons a brief time must elapse before reinforcement can be given