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2010-11-12 15:38:17

Praxis II exam vocabulary
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  1. Achievement/Ability comparisons
    is there a gap? If so, could have a language disability.
  2. CAT
    California Achievement Test
  3. cloze procedures
    strategies that delete some words in a text so reader will use semantic/syntactic knowledge to fill in the blanks
  4. content cluster performance indicators
    content area school performance
  5. criterion referenced
    refers to standardized test like ISTEP in that scoring is based upon the criterion results and what behavior is expected within a given score, rather than compared to other test takers
  6. functional reading levels
    the level of reading in order to participate in society (independent, instructional, and frustrational in terms of Running Records)
  7. grade equivalent score
    puts assessment performance at a grade level
  8. IQ
    intelligence quotient=the ratio between mental age and chronological age x 100 (intellectual potential). The assumption is that intellectual potential is based upon a constant rate of intellectual development. This assumption is faulty.
  9. IRI
    Individual Reading Inventory
  10. ISTEP
    Indiana State Testing for Education Progess
  11. MAT
    analytic test used to measure verbal comprehension and analytical thinking. The analogies on the MAT may be either semantic, classification, association, or logical/mathematical. Semantic analogies involve the definitions of the terms involved, and may be divided up into the following groups: synonyms/definitions; antonyms/contrasts; degrees of intensity; or word part and meaning. Classification analogies depend on an understanding of the way words and concepts are placed in a hierarchy. These analogies may have to do with category, membership, or the relation of whole and part. Association analogies are the most common type of analogy; they have to do with the relationship between two ideas. Association analogies may depend on the characteristics of an object, the order of something, or a cause-and-effect relationship. Finally, logical/mathematical analogies may contain equations, fractions, multiples, negation, or letter and sound patterns.
  12. IQ is 100
    (13/13=1x100=100) any score resulting in the same mental and chronological age
  13. NCEs
    • In educational statistics, a normal curve equivalent (NCE), developed for the United States Department of Education by the RMC Research Corporation,[1][2] is a way of standardizing scores received on a test. It is defined as (approximately) 50 + 21.06z, where z is the standard score or "z-score", i.e. z is how many standard deviations above the mean the raw score is (z is negative if the raw score is below the mean). The reason for the choice of the number 21.06 is to bring about the following result: If the scores are normally distributed (i.e. they follow the "bell-shaped curve") then 1) the normal equivalent score is 99 if the percentile rank of the raw score is 99, 2) the normal equivalent score is 50 if the percentile rank of the raw score is 50, 3) the normal equivalent score is 1 if the percentile rank of the raw score is 1.
    • NCEs can be averaged.
  14. norm referenced
    assessment that compares performance to average group score
  15. normal distribution (frequency) curve
    a graphic representation of the bell curve when conditions for mean, medium, and mode are the same
  16. percentile rank
    where the test taker ranks in the score distribution (based on 100). For example, 75th percentile is a score that is equal to or better than 75% of the scores.
  17. proficiency statements
    shows level of skills attained
  18. qualitative assessments
    in natural learning settings, such as kidwatching
  19. quantitative assessments
    measures in numerical terms
  20. quartile
    divides assessment scores into four parts
  21. raw score
    score before standardized
  22. "reading at 3.4"
    means a child is reading at grade equivalent 3rd grade, 4th month
  23. reliability
    consistency in measurements across tests
  24. rubric
    A scoring tool for subjective assessments. It is a set of criteria and standards linked to learning objectives that is used to assess a student's performance on papers, projects, essays, and other assignments. Rubrics allow for standardised evaluation according to specified criteria, making grading simpler and more transparent.
  25. Running Records
    a formal reading assessment used to gain insights into the use of reading strategies by a reader. Rate and comprehension also assessed.
  26. scaled scores
    A scaled score is a conversion of a student's raw score on a test or a version of the test to a common scale that allows for a numerical comparison between students. Because most major testing programs use multiple versions of a test, the scale is used to control slight variations from one version of a test to the next. Scaled scores are particularly useful for comparing test scores over time, such as measuring semester-to-semester and year-to-year growth of individual students or groups of students in a content area. However, within the same test, different content areas are typically on different scales, so a scaled score of 24 in Mathematics may not mean the same as a scaled score of 24 in Reading.
  27. standard deviation
    • The standard deviation is a statistic that tells you how tightly all the various examples are clustered around the mean in a set of data. When the examples are pretty tightly bunched together and the bell-shaped curve is steep, the standard deviation is small. When the examples are spread apart and the bell curve is relatively flat, that tells you you have a relatively large standard deviation.
    • Computing the value of a standard deviation is complicated. But let me show you graphically what a standard deviation represents...

    • One standard deviation away from the mean in either direction on the horizontal axis (the red area on the above graph) accounts for somewhere around 68 percent of the people in this group. Two standard deviations away from the mean (the red and green areas) account for roughly 95 percent of the people. And three standard deviations (the red, green and blue areas) account for about 99 percent of the people.
    • If this curve were flatter and more spread out, the standard deviation would have to be larger in order to account for those 68 percent or so of the people. So that's why the standard deviation can tell you how spread out the examples in a set are from the mean.
  28. standardized test
    specified tasks and procedures used in an assessment so that it can be compared
  29. stanine
    • intervals of a nine-point scale. A stanine is a type of scaled score used in many norm-referenced standardized tests. There are nine stanine units (the term is short for "standard nine-point scale"), ranging from 9 to 1. Typically, stanine scores are interpreted as above average (9, 8, 7), average (6, 5, 4), and below average (3, 2, 1). Using only nine numbers, stanine scoring is usually easier to understand than other scoring models.
    • Stanine scores are useful in comparing a student's performance across different content areas. For example, a 6 in Mathematics and an 8 in Reading generally indicate a meaningful difference in a student's learning for the two respective content areas. While stanine scores are good at signifying broad differences in performance, they should be used cautiously when making any finer distinctions about performance.
  30. tracking
    (also called streaming) is separating pupils by academic ability into groups for all subjects within a school. In a tracking system, the entire school population is assigned to classes according to whether the students' overall achievement is above average, normal, or below average. Students attend all classes only with students whose overall academic achievement is the same as their own. Tracking differs from ability grouping by scale and permanence. Ability groups are small, informal groups formed within a single classroom. Assignment to an ability group is often short-term (never lasting longer than one school year), and varies by subject.
  31. validity
    That a test assesses what it means to assess—accurate test results. Currently, the field of educational measurement appears to have reached broad consensus that validity is a judgment of the degree to which arguments support the interpretations and uses of test scores (Kane, 2006). However, the field of educational measurement appears to disagree on the role that the consequences of test score use play in judgments concerning validity
  32. NAEP
    National Assessment of Educational Progress
  33. MClass
    k-12 foundational skills in reading and math
  34. NWEA
    a non-profit organization working alongside member school districts to create a culture that values and uses data to improve instruction and student progress
  35. graphophonic cueing system
    "sounding out" (visual)
  36. syntactic cueing system
    • verbal grammar->sentence structure; relationship of words, sentences, and paragraphs; word order, tense, number, and gender
    • Does it sound right?
  37. semantic cueing system
    • context pics->meaning of text; relationship between language and its meaning system
    • Does it make sense?
  38. pragmatic cueing system
    world or prior knowledge
  39. strategic reading
    thinking about reading to enhance learning and understanding
  40. metacognitive knowledge
    awareness and understanding of how one thinks and uses strategies during reading
  41. comprehension monitoring
    being able to keep track of what is being read by becoming aware of one's thinking while reading, detecting obstacles and confusions that derail understanding, understanding how strategies can help them repair meaning when it breaks down
  42. phonological awareness
    ability to distinguish sentence, words and and compare and manipulate sound chunks in spoken language
  43. phonemic awareness
    ability to segment, blend and manipulate individual sounds in words
  44. graphic awareness
    ability to identify concepts of print including; book knowledge, text/letter awareness and sight words
  45. phonics
    ability to connect sounds to letters, blend sounds to decode and decode by using recognizable parts of words or spelling patterns
  46. alphabetic principle
    each speech sound of the language is represented by a graphic symbol
  47. phoneme
    smallest unit of speech sound in language (individual sounds of a word)
  48. grapheme
    symbols that represent phonemes (individual letters)
  49. segmenting
    process of hearing a spoken word and being able to identify its phonemes
  50. blending
    process of hearing the phonemes and being able to put them together to tell what the word is
  51. consonant digraphs
    two consecutive consonants that represent one speech sound
  52. consonant blends
    two or three consonant sounds clustered together in a word or syllable where all consonant sounds are heard
  53. vowel digraphs
    two adjacent vowels in a syllable represent one speech sound
  54. diphthongs
    two vowels in one syllable where two sounds are heard
  55. schwa
    softened of indeterminate sound (sounds like short 'u') (ex. above, beautiful, committee)
  56. structural analysis
    word recognition skill in which knowledge of the meaningful parts of words aids in the identification of an unknown written word
  57. morphemes
    meaningful structural parts of words; smallest unit of meaning in a word (cat=1, cats=two)
  58. bound morpheme
    must be attached to another morpheme in order to carry meaning (unhappy=2: un=bound; happy=free)
  59. free morpheme
    can stand alone as a word (desk=1=free)
  60. affix
    any morpheme attached to the main meaning-bearing part of a word (includes prefixes, suffixes, and inflectional endings and are bound morphemes)
  61. prefix
    bound morpheme added to the beginning of a word
  62. suffix
    bound morpheme added to the end of a word
  63. MAP
    Measures of Academic Progress
  64. inflectional endings
    special set of suffixes (change the number, case, or gender when added to nouns; tense when added to verbs; form when added to adjectives and adverbs)
  65. compound words
    combination of two free morphemes
  66. contractions
    formed by combining two free morphemes into a shortened form by the omission of one or more letters and the insertion of an apostrophe where those letters were omitted
  67. Balanced Literacy Instruction
    marked by an equal emphasis on the nurturing of reading through authentic reading experiences with authentic reading materials and more direct instruction in strategies and skills needed for successful reading; “decision-making approach through which the teacher makes thoughtful choices each day about the best way to help each child become a better reader and writer. A balanced approach is not constrained by or reactive to a particular philosophy. It is responsive to new issues while maintaining what research and practice has already shown to be effective”
  68. context
    linguistic environment
  69. decode
    to analyze graphic symbols into their oral representation and meaning (synonymous with word identification and word recognition)
  70. fluency
    to read expressively, meaningfully, in appropriate syntactic units, at appropriate rates, and without word recognition difficulty
  71. analogical phonics
    approach to phonics in which children are taught letter patterns found in words they recognize and apply the knowledge of those patterns to new, unknown words (word families or rimes and affixes)
  72. analytic phonics
    whole-part approach to phonics instruction in which students are initially taught a set of sight words; from these, phonics generalizations are abstracted or identified and then applied to other words
  73. synthetic phonics
    part-to-whole approach to phonics instruction in which students are directly taught sounds that are represented by letters and letter combinations; then instructed in synthesizing or putting together multiple letters and sounds to identify or sound out a word
  74. sight word
    a word that is recognized immediately as a whole with minimal effort and without detailed analysis
  75. onset
    part of a syllable that contains any consonants that precede the vowel
  76. rime
    aka phonogram or word family; part of a syllable that contains the vowel and any consonants that follow the vowel
  77. 5 Effective Ways of Teaching Reading
    • phonemic awareness
    • phonics/word study
    • fluency
    • vocabulary
    • comprehension
  78. phonological cueing system
    system of sounds of oral language; includes intonation system (stress of syllables, variations in pitch, juncture relating to breaths)
  79. orthographic
    written language system; way in which print is organized in the written language world (upper and lower case, punctuation, spacing, spelling)
  80. 6 Traits of Writing
    • ideas and content
    • organization
    • voice
    • word choice
    • sentence fluency
    • conventions
  81. Yopp-Singer Test of Phonemic Segmentation
    set of 22 words that individual students are asked to segment into constituent sounds