PHARM week 7 ch 24,25&26

Card Set Information

Author:
ekruge01
ID:
49174
Filename:
PHARM week 7 ch 24,25&26
Updated:
2010-11-12 20:54:42
Tags:
pharm
Folders:

Description:
pharm
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user ekruge01 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What is hyperlipidemia? what does it lead to?
    Elevated levels of fatty substances (lipids) in blood-> athersclerosis (plaque formation) in BV's
  2. what are the 4 types of lipoproteins? describe them.
    • 1. VLDL: bad
    • 2. LDL: lower the better
    • 3. HDL: higher the better
    • 4. chylomicrons
  3. what do anti-cholesterol drugs usually end in?
    -statin
  4. what is the tx for hyperlipidemia?
    • 1. diet low in saturated fats and red meats
    • 2. exercise
    • 3. lipid lowering agents (anti-cholesterol drugs)
  5. what are the considerations when using lipid lowering agents?
    • 1. monitor liver enzymes b/c the may increase (hepaotoxicity) if so, change or d/c drug.
    • 2. niacin (nicotinic acid, OTC drug) helps with lowering lipids, but still need to monitor liver enzymes.
    • 3. Niacin "fluching" may be decreased with a low dose of ASA.
    • 4. may cause muscle breakdown/pain.
  6. what does the parasympathetic stimulation do in terms of the GI tract?
    • 1. increases GI motility
    • 2. increases secretions of bile
    • 3. increases secretions of saliva
    • 4. increases pancreatic/gastric juices
    • PRESENCE OF FOOD IN STOMACH-> RELEASES
    • 5. gastrin
    • 6. secretin
    • 7. cholesystokinin
  7. what is parasympathetic stimulation in terms of the GI tract?
    • 1. decreases GI motility
    • 2. decreases secretions
    • 3. increases vasoconstriction of intestinal mucosa in BV's
  8. what is absorbed in the small intestine?
    • 1. nutrients
    • 2. H2O
  9. ducts in duodenum receive bile and pancreatic enzymes to?
    • 1. digest food
    • 2. neutralize pH
  10. what is the primary function of the large intestine?
    • 1. absorb H2O
    • 2. receive undigested material (fiber)
  11. 1. What is Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD)? 2. what is it due to?
    • 1. stomach acid hits esophagus
    • 2. lower esophageal sphincter incompetence
  12. what is GERD often secondary to?
    hiatal hernia
  13. What is another name for gastric/duodenal ulcers?
    Peptic Ulcer disease (PUD)
  14. What is PUD?
    mucosal lining becomes eroded (80% of time it is duodenum)
  15. what are the 3 causes of PUD?
    • 1. Helicobacter pylori (release toxins which destroy gastric mucosa)
    • 2. ASA/NSAID/Steroid use
    • 3. idiopathic hypersecretion of stomach acid
  16. what are the S&S of PUD?
    • 1. N&V
    • 2. epigastric pain (often 2-3 hrs after meals)
    • 3. increase in WBC
    • 4. anemia (if chronic bleeding)
    • 5. hematemesis (blood in vomit)
    • 6. melena (black, tarry stools)
  17. what are the aggravating factors of PUD?
    • 1. ETOH
    • 2. caffeine
    • 3. spicy foods
    • 4. stress
  18. what is the tx of PUD?
    • 1. H + blockers
    • 2. antibiotics if H. pylori
  19. What are antacids?
    alkaline (high pH:above 7) agents
  20. do antacids enhance healing?
    no, but provide temporary relief of heartburn
  21. long term use of antacids usually results in?
    "acid rebound" making problems worse
  22. antacids may bind with other drugs esp.?
    tetracycline
  23. what are some side effects of antacids?
    • 1. constipation
    • 2. diarrhea
    • 3. in high doses, may induce changes in blood ph->alkalosis
  24. when is not a good time to give antacids?
    1-2 hrs prior or after other drugs to avoid interactions
  25. what are the considerations when administering antacids?
    • 1. shake liquid products well before use
    • 2. follow administration with a small amount of water/milk to facilitate passage into stomach
    • 3. never give simultaneous with antibiotics
    • 4. antacids should be administered following meals or a snack
  26. DO not give people with PUD?
    • 1. ASA
    • 2. ibuprofen
    • 3. naproxen
  27. what are histamine receptor antagonists?
    reduce acid in stomach by interfering with its release from gastric parietal cells (blocks histamine stimulation of them)
  28. when is histamine receptor antagonists contraindicated?
    • 1. pregnancy
    • 2. people under 16
  29. what are proton pump inhibitors?
    inhibits H+ release from gastric parietal cells
  30. what should you monitor people taking cimetidine (Tagamet) for?
    • 1. diarrhea
    • 2. dizziness
    • 3. rash
    • 4. CONFUSION
  31. Any patients taking proton pump inhibitors/H2 receptor antagonist and also taking what drugs should watch the blood serum levels of these drugs?
    • 1. digoxin
    • 2. phenytoin
    • 3. warfarin
  32. what are the enzymes to promote digestion?
    • 1. pancreatic enzymes
    • 2. lactase enzymes
  33. what are lactase enzymes?
    break down the sugar lactose into absorbable units
  34. what are pancreatic enzymes?
    derived from animals so watch for reactions!
  35. What are emetics?
    agents used to induce vomiting
  36. what are emetics used to treat?
    food/drug poisonings (unless substance is corrosive/ they are unconscious)
  37. when syrup of ipecac (emetic) is given, what do you not give?
    activated charcoal
  38. why is syrup of ipecac not given to children under 1 year?
    the risk of aspiration
  39. before emetics can be given, what do you do?
    call poison control
  40. what are antiemetics?
    agents given to prevent N&V
  41. what are the methods of action for antiemetics?
    • 1. block Ach receptors
    • 2. block histamine (which when released trigger N&V)
    • 3. block dopamine and/or seratonin
  42. what are the delivery routes for antiemetics?
    • 1. transdermal
    • 2. parenteral
    • 3. oral
  43. (antiemetics) if vomiting occurs the nurses job is to?
    prevent aspiration
  44. (antiemetics) assess clients recieving antihistamine and anticholinergic antiemetics for?
    • 1. urinary retention
    • 2. narrow-angle glaucoma
    • 3. constipation
    • 4. HYPERTENSION
  45. what are stimulant laxatives?
    • those which increase motility of GI tract by either:
    • 1. irritating the mucosa
    • OR
    • 2. stimulating smooth mucsle in mucosa
  46. what is the route for stimulant laxatives?
    supposititories
  47. stimulant laxatives are contraindicated in people with?
    • 1. abdominal pain
    • 2. nausea
    • 3. vomiting
    • 4. rectal fissures
  48. is stimulant laxatives short term or long term therapy?
    short term
  49. what are saline (water/salt mix) laxatives? what do they lead to?
    agents with an ionic concentration->blood, thereby "pulling" water from intestinal wall into feces to promote defecation
  50. saline laxatives/bulk-forming laxatives are contraindicated for people with?
    • 1. abdominal pain
    • 2. nausea
    • 3. vomiting
    • 4. other symptoms of appendicitis
  51. is saline laxatives long term or short term tx?
    short term
  52. what are bulk-forming laxatives?
    natural or semisynthetic compounds that absorb fluid and swell in the intestine to promote defecation.
  53. are bulk-forming laxatives short term or long term?
    long term
  54. how long can it take for bulk-forming laxatives to work?
    up to 3 days
  55. how should bulk-forming laxatives be administered?
    mixed with liquid and drink immediately. follow with another glass of liquid.
  56. what are stool softeners?
    detergent type agents which promote mixing of fecal fat with water, making stool softer.
  57. avoid use of stool softeners for?
    longer than 1 week
  58. how may stool softners be adminstered?
    • Mixed with
    • 1. fruit juice
    • 2. milk
    • 3. formula
    • to mask taste
  59. how long can stool softners take to work?
    up to 3 days
  60. stool softner prevents what? but does nto cure it.
    constipation
  61. what are antidiarreals?
    drugs which slow intestinal mobitlity
  62. what are the 2 main types of antidiahrrheals?
    • 1. opiods
    • 2. anticholergics (inhibit peristalsis)
  63. what should a patient taking antidiahrheals be monitored for?
    CNS depression esp if using other CNS depressants
  64. what should you monitor in a infant taking antidiarrheals?
    body weight

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview