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2010-11-12 19:43:38

Neurology 1
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  1. What is cranial nerve 1, and it's major function?
    Olfactory, its major function is smell.
  2. What is the second cranial nerve and it's major function?
    Optic, its major function is vision.
  3. What is cranial nerve 3 and it's function?
    Oculomotor, its major function is eye movement.
  4. What is the 4th cranial nerve and it's major function?
    Trochlear, its major function is eye movement.
  5. What is the 5th cranial nerve and it's major function?
    Trigeminal, its major function is chewing. face, mouth, teeth scalp sensation.
  6. What is the 6th cranial nerve and it's function?
    Abducens and it turns eyes outward
  7. What is the 7th cranial nerve and it's major function?
    Facial and it controls most facial expressions and taste sensation. Tears, mucus and saliva production
  8. What is the 8th cranial nerve and it's major function?
    Vestibulocochlear (Acoustic) and its major function is hearing and equilibrium.
  9. What is the 9th cranial nerve and it's major function?
    Glossopharyngeal and its major function is the sensations of throat, taste, swallowing movements. Secretion of saliva. Normal voice (Contraction of the pharynx)
  10. What is the 10th cranial nerve and it's major function?
    Sensory and motor to larynx, (-) HR, contraction of the eliminatory tube, (+) digestive secretions, Sensory of cardiac, resp. + BP reflexes
  11. What is the 11th cranial nerve, and it's major function?
    Accessory (spinal accessory) and its major function is controlling the trapezius & sternocleidomastoid muscles.
  12. What is the 12 cranial nerve and it's major function?
    Hypoglossal and its major function controls tongue movements.
  13. What two systems maintain homeostasis of the body?
    The Endocrine and the Nervous system.
  14. What are Ganglia?
    Bunch of cell body's located outside the CNS
  15. What is an Afferent Neuron?
    Afferent are sensory. They send information to the CNS.
  16. What are Efferent Neurons?
    Efferent Neurons are Motor Neurons the send information from the CNS to the rest of the body.
  17. What is the organization of the Nervous system?
    The Nervous system is Organized into two divisions. The CNS and the PNS
  18. What is the break down of the CNS organization?
    • CNS
    • -Brain
    • -Spinal cord
    • -Nerves
    • -Ganglia
  19. What is Gray Matter made up of?
    Gray matter is made up of Nerve Cells
  20. What is white matter is made up of?
    White matter is made up of militated Sheaths, it is what allows the communication occur
  21. What is the division of the Brain or Functional areas of the Brain?
    • -Cerebrum
    • -Diencephalon
    • -Brainstem
    • -Cerebellum
  22. What is the Broca's area responsible for? and where is it located?
    Broca's area is responsible for Motor Expressive speech (getting information out that makes sense. It is located in the frontal lobe.
  23. What is the Wernicke's area responsible for, and where is it located?
    The Wernicke's area is responsible for language comprehension. Its located in the Temporal lobe.
  24. Which side of the brain is the dominant side in most people?
    The left Hemisphere is the dominant side in most people.
  25. Divisions of the Cerebrum?
    Left Hemisphere and the Right Hemisphere
  26. The Left Hemisphere is responsible for what characteristics?
    • -Math
    • -Problem solving
    • -Logical reasoning
  27. The Right Hemisphere is responsible for what characteristics?
    • -Artistic abilities
    • -Creativity
    • -Spatial relations
    • -Emotional/Behavioral characteristics
  28. What are the Lobes of the Cerebrum?
    • -Frontal Lobe
    • -Parietal Lobe
    • -Temporal Lobe
    • -Occipital Lobe
  29. What does the Frontal lobe do?
    • -Voluntary Movements
    • -Intellectual function
    • -Personality
    • -This is where the Broca's area is located
  30. What does the Parietal lobe do?
    • -Sensation (touch and pain)
    • -This is where the Wernickies area is located
  31. What is the Basal Ganglia/Nuclei
    • -Cluster of nerve cells
    • -Surrounds the Thalamus
    • -Initiating and intergrading movements
  32. What are some associated Diseases with the Basal Ganglia?
    • -Parkinsons's
    • -Huntington's
  33. Where is the Diencephalon located?
    Between the brainstem and the cerebrum
  34. What are the major divisions of the Diencephalon?
    • -Hypothalamus
    • -Thalamus
  35. What is the responsibility of the Hypothalamus?
    • -Homeostasis
    • -Control Center for ANS
    • -Temperature regulation
  36. What is the Thalamus responsible for?
    • -Sorting and relay station
    • > Incoming Sensory
    • -Mood
    • -General body movement
  37. Where is the Limbic system located?
    -Portion of cerebrum and diencephalon
  38. What is the Limbic responsible for?
    • -Emotions
    • -Motivation
    • -Mood
    • -Sensation
    • -Mood
    • -Sensation to pain and pleasure
    • -Memory
  39. What is the division of the Brainstem?
    • - Pons
    • - Medulla Oblongata
  40. What is the responsibility of the Medulla Oblongata?
    • Vital center & Cranial nerves IX - XII
    • -Cardiac
    • -Respiration
    • -Vasomotor Center
    • -Swallowing
    • -Vomiting
  41. What is the responsibility of the Pons?
    • -Relays information
    • > Cerebrum to Cerebellum
    • -Sleep Center
    • -Respiratory Center
    • >Timer
    • -Cranial nerves V - IIV
    • (How well we breathe, sleep)
  42. What is the Reticular Formation, and where is it located?
    • -Its part of the Reticular Activating system (RAS)
    • -Regulates many involuntary functions
  43. What is the RAS (reticular activating system)
    • -Control over the Cerebral Cortex
    • >Attention/wakefulness
    • >Sleep/wake cycle
    • >Arousing and maintaining consciousness
  44. What are the major functions of the Cerebellum?
    • -Gross motor Coordination
    • -Smooth muscle movement
    • -Coordination
    • > Balance
    • > Posture
    • -Compares intended movement with actual one
  45. What structures protect the brain?
    • -Meninges
    • > Three Layers
    • -CSF
  46. What are the layers of the Meninges? (in order of inferior to superior)
    • -Dura Mater
    • >Subdural space
    • >Dura sinuses
    • -Arachnoid mater (not very strong)
    • >Subarachnoid Space
    • >Arachnoid Villi
    • -Pia Mater
  47. What are the Ventricles of the Brain?
    • -There are 4 Ventricles
    • -Choroid Plexus
    • >This is where CSF is produced
  48. What is the Blood Brain Barrier?
    • -Protective Mechanism
    • -Tight Junction of capillary Endothelial Cells
    • >Least permeable capillaries in the entire body
    • -Only allows lipid soluble substances
  49. What DOES get through the BBB?
    • -Glucose
    • -Oxygen
    • -Water (There is a difference between water itself and water soluble)
    • -Alcohol
    • -Anesthetic Substances
  50. What is the Extrapyramidal System?
    -Motor pathway in the CNS
  51. What does the Extrapyramidal System affect?
    • Skeletal muscle
    • Posture
    • Coordination
    • Coordinates movements
  52. What is the Blood supply to the brain?
    • -Internal Carotid Arteries
    • -Vertebral arteries
    • -Circle of Willis
  53. What is the make up of the Internal Carotid Arteries?
    • -Anterior cerebral artery
    • -Middle cerebral artery
  54. What is the make-up of the Vertebral Arteries?
    • -Basil artery
    • -Posterior cerebral arteries
  55. How many Cranial nerves are there?
  56. How many spinal nerves are there?
    31 - Identified by Letter and Number
  57. What do the Spinal Nerves?
    -Conduct impulses between spinal cord and parts of the body not supplied by the cranial nerves
  58. How many nerves are in the Cervical section of the spine?
    8 pairs of nerves
  59. How many nerves are in the Thoracic section of the spine?
    12 pairs
  60. How many nerves are in the lumbar section of the spine?
    5 pairs
  61. How many nerves are in the Sacral section of the spine?
    6 Pairs
  62. How many nerves are in the Coccyx section of the spine?
    1 pair
  63. Where does the Internal Carotid Artery come from?
    The front
  64. Where does the Vertebral arteries come up from?
    The Back
  65. What areas of the brain does the Internal carotid arteries perfuse?
    Look this up in the paramedic book
  66. What areas of the brain does the Vertebral arteries perfuse?
    Look this up in the paramedic text book
  67. What is the hole at the bottom of the skull called?
    Foramen Magnum
  68. Cranial Nerve 1 is what type of nerve?
    Afferent (Sensory)
  69. Cranial nerve II is what type of nerve?
    Afferent sensory
  70. What type of nerve is Cranial nerve #3?
    Motor (Efferent) and Parasympathetic
  71. What type of nerve is Cranial nerve #4?
  72. What type of nerve is Cranial nerve #5?
    Combo, Sensory and Motor
  73. What type of nerve is cranial nerve #6?
  74. What type of nerve is cranial nerve #7?
    Sensory, Motor and parasympathetic
  75. What type of nerve is cranial nerve #8?
  76. What type of nerve is cranial nerve #9?
    Sensory, motor and parasympathetic
  77. What type of nerve is cranial nerve #10?
    Sensory, motor and parasympathetic
  78. What type of nerve is cranial nerve #11?
  79. What type of nerve is cranial nerve #12?
  80. What is a reflex arc?
    A reflex arc is communication that does not include the intraneuron its like touching something hot. You don't think before you move.
  81. What is a Dermatome?
    • A Dermatome is an area on the surface of the skin supplied by a single nerve
    • Letters and numbers indicate spinal nerves innervating a given region of the skin
  82. Can neurons regenerate?
    • PNS nerves can regenerate
    • CNS nerves do not regenerate
  83. What conducts impulses?
    • Neurons conduct information (Impulses)
    • Glia or Neuroglia do not transmit
  84. What is the 3 parts of a Neuron?
    • Cell Body
    • Dendrites
    • Axon
  85. What are the three types of neurons?
    • Sensory
    • Motor
    • Interneuron
  86. What is the purpose of a Interneuron?
    • (Also called Central/Connecting Neurons)
    • Connects sensory neurons to Motor
  87. What is Myelin?
    Myelin is a fatty substance that allows information to be transmit
  88. Where are Schwann Cells located?
    Only in the PNS surrounding the Axon
  89. What is the outer layer of the Schwann cells called?
  90. What are the nodes of Ranvier?
    • The nodes of Ranvier are the spaces between the Schwann cells.
    • Its also a place for nutrients and waste
  91. What is the Saltatory conduction?
    Saltatory Conduction is the bunny hoping that information takes down the Axon in the Nodes of Ranvier
  92. What is Repolarization?
    Getting back to the place where it receive another impulse
  93. What is Depolarization?
    This is where the sodium channels ion and an Electrical impulse goes across the axon
  94. What is the Preganglionic neurotransmitter for the parasympathetic and the sympathetic nervous system?
  95. What happens in the Synapse?
    Transmission of signals from the presynaptic neuron to the synaptic neuron.
  96. What actions occur in the in the Synapse, in order.
    Denrites receive information (Energy) relay the information to the cell body, down the axon to the Synaptic Knob where the Vesicles are located containing a certain neurotransmitter will be released, then across the Synaptic Cleft to the Plasma membrane where the Receptor sites are located, and the neurotransmitter can only connect to a certain receptor
  97. What is an Action Potential?
    Nerve Impulse
  98. What receptor is always inhibitory?
  99. How does the body get rid of neurotransmitters?
    • Destroyed by certain enzymes
    • Reabsorbed into the synaptic Knob
  100. What kind of neurons is the Autonomic system made up of?
    Motor neurons only
  101. What is the enzyme that breaks up Acetylcholine?
  102. What is the Enzyme(s) that break up Norepinephrine?
    • COMT
    • MAO
  103. What are the types of Glia Cells we need to know?
    • Astrocytes
    • Microglia
    • Oligodendrocytes
  104. What do Astrocytes do?
    Attach to Neurons and Small Blood Vessels
  105. What so the Microglia do?
  106. What do the Oligodendrocytes do?
    Produce Fatty Myelin Sheaths (Protection)
  107. Where does the Parasympathetic nerves come from?
    The cranial and sacral areas
  108. What is the make up of the Preganglionic Neurons?
    • Long
    • Cell body located in the CNS
    • Come from the Brainstem and the sacral region
  109. Where are the Postganglionic Neurons?
    • Short
    • On or near the Visceral Structures
  110. What are the Cranial Preganglionic Neurons nerves?
    • III
    • VII
    • IX
    • X
  111. What are the Cholinergic Receptors?
    • Nicotinic
    • Muscarinic
  112. Stimulation of the Parasympathetic Nervous system results in what?
    • Pupillary Constriction
    • Secretion of Saliva
    • Bronchoconstriction
    • Reduced HR & Negative Inotropic Effects
    • Increases Secretion by Digestive glands
    • Increased smooth muscle activity along the GI track
    • Increased Urine
  113. What is the location of the Preganglionic Neurons in the sympathetic nervous system?
    • Short
    • Cell body located in the CNS
    • Comes from the Thoracic + Lumbar regions
  114. What is the location of the sympathetic Postganglionic neurons?
    • Long
    • Come off the Paravertebral Sympathetic Ganglion chain
  115. What are the Adrenergic Receptors?
    • 2 - Alpha
    • 2 - Beta
    • Dopaminergic
  116. What does Alpha 1 do?
    • Peripheral vasoconstriction
    • Increased Glycogenolysis
    • Pupillary Dilation
    • There is more Alpha 1 then Alpha 2
  117. What does Alpha 2 do?
    • Peripheral vasodilation (Limits release of Norepinephrine)
    • Stimulated By Excessive Amounts of Norepinephrine in Synaptic Cleft
  118. What does Beta 1 do?
    • + Inotropic
    • + Chronotrpic
    • + Dronotropic
    • Increased Automaticity
  119. What does Beta 2 do?
    • Bronchodilation
    • Peripheral vasodilation
    • Uterine smooth muscle relaxant
    • GI smooth muscle relaxant
  120. Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system does what?
    • Dilates Pupils
    • Constricts Peripheral Vessels
    • Increase Blood to Skeletal Muscles
    • Bronchodilation
    • Increase Chronotropic and Inotropic effects
    • Decrease Digestive Activity
  121. What are some things that are specific to the sympathetic nervous system?
    • Sweat Glands Stimulation
    • Release of Glucose Stores From the Liver
    • Arrector Pili Stimulation
    • Adrenal Medulla Stimulation
  122. Are the stimulation of the sweat glands sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system?
    They are parasympathetic in nature but are stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system
  123. What are the 3 Cranial nerves that are Motor, sensory, parasympathetic?
    • #7-Facial
    • #9-Glassopharyngeal
    • #10-Vagus
  124. How do we test cranial nerve # 1
    Smell stuff
  125. How do we test cranial nerve # 2
    Visual Acuity
  126. How do we test cranial nerve # 3
    Check pupil size, shape, reactivity to light - Cardinal Gaze
  127. How do we test cranial nerve # 4
    Turn eye laterally, up+down
  128. How do we test cranial nerve # 5
    • Sensory: Use something thats sharp/dull and put on pt’s face, cheek, chin and ask pt to distinguish
    • Motor: Ask pt to clinch teeth while you palpate the temporal, massetar muscle
  129. How do we test cranial nerve # 6
    Cardinal Gaze
  130. How do we test cranial nerve # 7
    • Motor: Smile, frown, raise eye brow
    • Sensory: Taste something
    • Parasympathetic: Mucus membranes are pink and wet
  131. How do we test cranial nerve # 8
    Rombergs/Snapping hearing test
  132. How do we test cranial nerve # 9
    • Sensory: Taste/gag reflex
    • Motor: Ask patient to swallow and listen for normal voice sounds Parasympathetic: Secretion of saliva
  133. How do we test cranial nerve # 10
    • Sensory: Assess patient ability to swallow and produce saliva, rub tummy
    • Motor: Produce normal voice sounds
    • Parasympathetic: Valsalva maneuver
  134. How do we test cranial nerve # 11
    Ask patient to shrug shoulders and look left and right
  135. How do we test cranial nerve # 12
    Ask patient to stick out their tongue and move it around
  136. What does the middle cerebral artery perfuse?
    • Parietal Lobe
    • Temporal Lobe
  137. What does the Anterior Cerebral artery perfuse?
    Frontal lobe
  138. What does the Basil artery perfuse?
    • Cerebellum
    • Medulla Oblongata
  139. What does the Posterior Cerebral Arteries perfuse?
  140. What are the 5 components of the neurological assessment?
    • Mental Status and speech
    • Cranial nerves (Sensory, Motor, Parasympathetic)
    • Motor system
    • Reflexes
    • Sensory System
  141. Where is the RAS located?
    The RAS is located in the brainstem
  142. What is the definition of Confused?
    Bewilderment (Not quite getting it)
  143. What is the definition of Disorientation?
    Losing the ability to know where you are
  144. What is the definition of Lethargy?
    Tired, weak
  145. What is the definition of Obtundant?
    A chemical cause to be less conjugate
  146. Define Stupor.
    A state near-unconsciousness or insensibility
  147. Define a Coma.
    • A state of deep/superficial unconsciousness that lasts for a prolonged or indefinite period
    • Superficial= Deep reflexes are present
    • Deep= No reflexes
  148. Define Apneustic.
    • A period of prolonged inspiratory hold
    • People do this on a regular basis (A deep breath)
  149. What is Normal Breathing called?
  150. What are Cheyne-Stokes?
    • A regular irregular breathing pattern
    • Usually associated with a Neurological problem, however sow people do normally
    • Pattern with periods of apnea
    • Looks like torsades de pointes
  151. What is Central Neurogenic Hyperventilation?
    Fast, Deep and regular ventilations
  152. What is Expressive Aphasia?
    Problems expressing speech
  153. What is Receptive Aphasia?
    Problems understanding
  154. What is Dysarthria?
    Problems getting things out
  155. What is Dysphonia?
    • weakness problem getting things out
    • (But can still get things out)
  156. What does Anascoria mean?
    • Unequal pupils
    • Can be normal
  157. What is a Conjugate/Disconjugate gaze?
    • Conjugate: Both eyes looking in the same direction
    • Disconjugate: Eye's looking in different directions
  158. What is hyperreflexia?
    Reflex is extra large
  159. What is Spasticity?
    Increase uncle tone to where they are tight
  160. What is Rigidity?
    Not moving very stiff (Dead people)
  161. What is Flaccidity?
    Floppy, hanging lose or limp
  162. What is the Pronators Drift test?
    • This is where you ask the patient to put their arms up in front of them with there palms facing up, if one of the arms fall and turns downward then it is a positive drift pronators drift test, if the arm falls but the hands remain supinated the test is positive arm drift
    • Test coordination
  163. How do we test muscle tone?
    Have the patient push and pull with their feet and hands
  164. What types of Posturing are there?
    • Decorticate: This is where the patients feet extend and the hands flex toward the patients core
    • Decerebrate: This is where the patients feet/hands extend out
  165. What is Hemianopia?
    Loss of vision
  166. What is the Eye Opening of the GCS?
    • 4 - Spontaneous
    • 3 - Open to Voice
    • 2 - Open to Pain
    • 1 - No eye opening
  167. What is the Verbal section of the GCS?
    • 5 - Oriented
    • 4 - Confused speech
    • 3 - Inappropriate words
    • 2 - Incomprehensible words
    • 1 - No Verbal response
  168. What is the Motor response section of the GCS?
    • 6 - Obeys commands
    • 5 - Localizes Pain
    • 4 - Withdraws from pain
    • 3 - Flexion (Decorticate)
    • 2 - Extension (Decerebrate)
    • 1 - No Motor response