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What are Gil forceps?
Gil Forceps are used to remove a foreign body
Why should we take our time to stabilize the head?
15% of all intubations are dislodged without head stabilization
What do we do if a tube becomes displaced?
Pull it and intubate again
How many attempts do we get to intubate?
2 then go to BLS
A combitube is roughly the size of what ET tube?
What size ET tube do we use on women?
What size ET tube was used on an adult male?
How much air do we use on a large combitube?
- 100cc proximal
- 15cc distal
How much air do we use on a small combitube?
What size person gets a large Combitube?
What size person gets a small Combitube?
What does BURP mean?
What is the number we are looking for in capnography
What is the lower (expectable) range for Pulse oxymetry?
What are some factors that effect the Oxygen dissociation curve?
What is the corina?
The Corina is the bifurcation in the lungs
What is an endotrol?
An endotrol is used for nasal intubation it has the pull cord
What is the most common cause of a laryngospasm?
What is Retrograde Intubation?
Retrograde intubation is where a wire is fed through the exact place you circa and feed a ET tube down the wire into the trachea
What is digital incubation?
- Digital Intubation is where the neck is hyper flexed and the epiglottis is pulled forward toward the rescuer with the index finger on the epiglottis
- Preferred way to intubate children
How do you confirm a king airways placement?
How much fluid do you send down an ET tube before Tracheal suction?
When do you stop advancing a french catheter?
When resistance is met of the patient begins to cough
How long should we use tracheal suction?
No more than 15 sec
What is traumatic asphyxia?
Sudden increase in venue pressure can tear the chordea tenenea
What does Atelectasis mean?
Partial or complete collapse of the lung
Fractures to ribs 10-12 can result in what?
Damage to the Liver, Spleen, Kidneys
What is the definition of a "Flail chest"?
Two or more adjacent ribs fractured in two or more places producing a free floating segment of the chest wall
What is an Open Pneumothorax?
- A hole in the chest wall that allows air to enter pleural space
- (The Larger the hole the more likely air will enter there than through the trachea)
What is ideal V?Q matching?
4grams of O2 for every 5Liters of blood giving us a 0.8 V?Q match
What is the "usual" place SQ Emphysema accumulates?
Around the neck and shoulder
What is the most field expedient way to manage an open pneumothorax?
With a gloved hand
What is the lateral location for a Needle Thoracostomy?
Midaxillary line 4-5th intercostal space
How much blood can an Intercostal artery bleed in 1 min?
What is the most common injury associated with blunt trauma?
What is the purpose of ventilations during CPR?
The purpose of ventilations during CPR is to maintain oxygenation and elimination of Carbon Dioxide
What occasionally "blunts" the beneficial effects of chemical and electrical therapy?
In what patients does "auto-PEEP" substantially reduce CO and BP?
Patients with Hypovolemia
What are two concerns with an NPA?
Airway bleeding or intracranial placement
What are some different ways to recognize the placement of a ET tube?
- Co2 detector
- esophageal detector (Tummie syringe, Bulb syringe)
Does an LMA protect the airway against aspiration?
- It provides some protection
- Aspiration is uncommon with LMA but not unheard of
Can the LMA be used on all patients?
Yes, however a small portion of patients can not be ventilated after the insertion of the LMA
When may an EDD devise give a false reading?
- morbid obesity
- late pregnancy
- status asthmaticus
What are the 3 most important caveats for rescuers performing CPR after advanced airway is insert?
- Ensure correct placement
- Asynchronized CPR
- Avoid excessive ventilations
The installed suction unit should be powerful enough to provide? and a vacuum of?
- Power of >40L/min
- Vacum or >300 mmHg
What is Traumatic aphyxia?
A severe crushing injury to the chest and abdomen that causes an increase in intrathoracic pressure. The increased pressure forces blood from the right side of the heart into the veins of the upper thorax, neck and face
What are the three problems with asthma?
- Narrowing of the bronchial tubes (Contraction of the smooth muscle)
- Inflammation (Swelling of the lining of the bronchial)
- Excess mucus production (Globular cells become overactive)
What are some SXS of Asthma?
- Tightness in the chest
- Trouble breathing
- Shortness of breath
- Chest pain
- Silent breath sounds
How do we treat Asthma?
- Albuterol or epinephrine
- Support ABC's
- IV (Dehydration, help break up mucus formation)
- Consider: Ipratropium (Atrovent) Corticosteroids, Magnesium Sulfate.
What is the difference between Albuterol and Epinephrine?
- Albuterol: Peak affect in 2hrs Strong effect in 20min, Epinephrine: Peak affect in 3-5min
- Albuterol: must reach the target site, Epinephrine can be given IM or Sub-Q
- Albuterol: Last 4-6hrs, Epinephrine: Lasts 15-20min
- Albuterol: Affects only the part of the airway it reaches, Epinephrine: Systemic affect
How far should the MDI be from the face when using?
2 inches from the front of your mouth
What must the Oxygen do before it reaches the Alveoli?
By the time you inhale the Oxygen must be @ 98.6 degrees and 100% Humidity
What is Bronchitis?
Bronchitis is characterized by inflamed airway tissue and excessive mucus production
What is Chronic Bronchitis (COPD)?
- Chronic irritation and infection of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles
- Excess mucus obstructs bronchioles, interfering with alveolar ventilation
- To have Chronic bronchitis you must have a respiratory infection for 3 months out of a year, doesn't have to be consecutive
- Leads to persistent, productive cough
What are Chronic Bronchitis SXS?
- Sometimes the large and small airway of the lungs become narrowed, and the lining of the passageways may become scarred. This makes it hard to move the air in and out of the lungs, resulting in SOB:
- Blue blotters (Cyanosis and signs of right sided heart failure)
- Most commonly caused by Cigarette smoking
- Chronic productive cough
- Coarse crackles
How do we treat Chronic Bronchitis?
- Support ABC's
- Medication may be indicated (Albuterol)
- (Remember, not all wheezing should get Albuterol. Albuterol for wheezing of cardiac origin may further complicate patient condition)
What are the procedures for a Cricothyrotomy?
- Locate the Thyroid Cartilage
- Locate the Cricothyroid membrane
- Prep the are with an antiseptic swap
- Make a 1-inch vertical incision through the skin and subcutaneous tissue
- Expose the cricothyroid membrane
- Make a horizontal, transverse incision approximately 1/2 inch long through the membrane
- Using a dilator, hemostat, or gloves finger to maintain surgical opening, insert the cuffed tube into the trachea
- Cric tube of a 6.0 ETT is usually sufficient
- Inflate the cuff with 5-10cc of air and ventilate the patient while stabilizing the tube
What is Pierre Robin Syndrome?
What is Kyphosis?
Irregular curvature of the spine
What is Ankylosing Spondylitis?
Irregular curvature of the spine where the patient is looking down
What is Acromegaly?
Large Jaw seen from Giantism in adults
What is Klippel-Fiel Sundrome?
What is the 3-3-2 rule?
- Greater than three fingers from Jaw to Neck
- Jaw is Greater then 3 fingers wide
- You can open the mouth greater then 2 fingers
What does LEOMON stand for?
- Look externally
- Evaluate the 3:3:2 rule
- Mellampati Classification
- Neck mobility
What is the Pickwickian Syndrome?
- Named after Joe, the sleepy, red-faced, fat boy from a charles Dickens book
- Lung function decrease esp. if supine (be aware of respiratory issues)
- Low lung volumes
- Restrictive lung defect
- Atelectasis and air trapping
- Plus COPD
- Pulmonary Hypertension/RT-sided heart failure
What does HELP stand for?
- Head Elevated Laryngoscope Position
- Remember this is for the non-traumatic patient
What is ELM?
- External Laryngeal Manipulation
- The incubator manipulates the larynx by moving the thyroid cartilage with their right hand during direct laryngoscopy
What does BURP stand for?
Backward, Upward, Rightward Pressure
What are the rating of head positions?
What is Emphysema?
- In emphysema, the walls between the tiny air sacs in the lungs lose their ability to stretch, and they become weakened and break. As the lung tissue become weakened and break. As the lung tissue becomes less elastic, air is trapped inside the air sax, and the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide is impaired.
- Most commonly caused by smoking, Chronic disease with years of retained lung gases (Long term exposure to toxins)
- Loss of elasticity and surface area of the alveoli
- Causes cellular change
What are the SXS of Emphysema?
- Pink puffer
- Dyspnea: Tripod position, Rapid - shallow breathing, Wheezing or crackles, pursed lips
- Thin, barrel chest, clubbed fingers (Clubbed fingers only seen in emphysema)
- (When responding to patient double the patients home O2)
- Caused by n increase in Trypsim (digestive enzyme)
What is Trypsin?
- Trypsin is a digestive enzyme, most often found in the digestive tract, where it is used to help the body digest food
- It is also released by immune cells in their attempt to destroy bacteria and other material
- Excessive amounts of Trypsim is released in the lungs of the emphysema patient
- Normally there is a balance between Alpha-1-antitrypsin and trypsin (There is an imbalance in emphysema)
What can the tissue damage in emphysema cause?
Breakdown of the alveoli also causes loss of the capillary beds surrounding them. This can lead the pulmonary hypertension which can result in an enlarged right ventricle
What is the normal numerical value of End Tidal CO2?
35mmHg - 45mmHg
What are the phases of the Capnography?
- A-B: Early Exhalation, CO2 free (dead space)
- B-C: Combination of dead space and alveolar gas
- C-D: Alveolar plateau
- D: End Tidal CO2
What is Capnography the vital sign for? What is Oximetry the vital sign for?
- Capnography is the vital sign for Ventilation
- Oximetry is the vital sing for oxygenation
What does the Absent alveolar plateau indicate?
Incomplete alveolar emptying or loss of endotracheal airway integrity
Why do we use Capnography in EMS?
- Tube verification
- Tube vigilance
- Judge effectiveness of ventilation
- Identifies ROSC
- Monitoring Hypoventilation Syndromes
- Track Progression of Respiratory Failure
What kind of different Electronic devices are there?
- Capnometry, "Meter" of the CO2 value, either bar scale of number
- Canogram, Waveform Graph of the CO2 values
- Capnography, Number plus waveform
- Mainstream, Measurement at patient adapter
- Sidestream, Gas sample sucked into the devise for measurement there
- "Microstream", sidestream with difference
What is Ventilation?
Movement of gas in and out of the lungs
What can cause a change ETCO2?
- Respiratory System
- Circulatory System
If there is a problem in the CO2 where could the problem be?
What is Hyperventilation Syndrome (HVS)?
- HVS represents a relatively common presentation that most clinicians readily recognize. However, the syndrome has defied precise definition and explanation of the underlying Pathophysiology for the past 100yrs
- As classically defined, HVS is a condition in which minute ventilation exceeds metabolic demands, resulting in hemodynamic and chemical changes that produce characteristic dysphonic symptoms.
- Said simply the patient is blowing off more CO2 than they need to maintain normal pH. This results in a sense of oxygen starvation
- Excessive deep, rapid ventilations (Excessive CO2 exhaled)
What kinds of HVS are there?
- Acute HVS accounts for only 1% of cases but is diagnosed more easily
- Chronic HVS can present with a myriad of respiratory, cardiac, neurologic, or GI symptoms without any clinically apparent reason other than the breathing pattern
What are some SXS of Acute Hyperventilation?
- Panic, excitement
- Deep, rapid ventilation (Air hunger, Clear bilateral BS)
- Numbness/tingling of lips, hands and feet (Carpal/pedal spasms)
- Sharp chest pain
- Obvious tachypnea and hyperpnea
- Chvostek or Trousseau
- Depersonalization or hallucination may be noted
What is Chvostek test?
- Used in Hyperventilation
- Tap behind the ear, if the face twitch then its positive for hyperventilation
What is Trousseau test?
Put BP cuff on, fill slightly above systolic pressure, leave on for 2-3 min, if wrist flexes then it is a positive test for hyperventilation
What are the SXS of Chronic Hyperventilation syndrome?
- Not usually apparent
- Frequent sighing respirations, 2-3 per minute
- Frequent yawning
- Chest wall tenderness
- Characteristically, multiple complaints without much supporting physical evidence of disease
What are some Contraindications for an LMA?
- Greater then 14-16 weeks pregnant
- Patients with multiple or massive injury
- Massive thoracic injury
- Massive Maxillofacial trauma
- Patients at risk of aspiration
- Not all Contraindications are Absolute
What are the Steps to insert an LMA?
- Step 1: Size selection
- Step 2: Examination of the LMA
- Step 3: Check deflation and inflation of the cuff
- Step 4: Lubrication of the LMA
- Step 5: Position of Airway
How do you measure the length of an NG tube?
- Nares to earlobe to xyphoid process
- Mark with something
How do we check placement of an NG tube?
- Ask pt. to talk
- Check mouth with light and tongue blade
- Secure tube
- Check gastric contents/ air auscultation
- Chest/abdomen X-ray
What size catheter is used for needle chest decompression?
What is the location for needle chest decompression?
Second intercostal, Mid-clavicular
What is the Definition of a Pulmonary Embolism?
A pulmonary embolism is a blockage of an artery in the lungs caused by a clot that travels through the bloodstream to the lungs
What is the typical SxS of a P.E.?
- Shortness of breath that starts suddenly for no obvious reason
- Chest pain, especially when breathing or coughing
- Feeling faint, lightheaded, dizzy
- Cough, sometimes with bloody phlegm
- Rapid heartbeat
- Rapid breathing
- Swollen, distended neck veins
What is the purpose of the Upper Airway?
What is the purpose of the lower airway?
What does Hypoxemia mean?
Decreased O2 levels in arterial blood
What does Hypoxia mean?
Decreased O2 content at the tissue level
When the blood (Hemoglobin) is Alkolotic what does the O2 do?
Easier for the hemoglobin to pick up O2, harder to release
What the blood is acidic what does the O2 do?
Harder for Hemoglobin to pick up O2, easier to release
What is Ventilation?
- Fick principle one
- The ability for the air to get to the Alveoli
- The actual mechanical movement
- Requires energy (ATP)
- Uses Intercostal muscles:
- Internal = Forced expiration
- External = Inspiration
What is Respiration?
- The actual transfer of gas
- There is Cellular respiration also
What is V/Q Mismatching?
- The V/Q ration determines the adequacy of gas exchange in the lungs
- When alveolar ventilation matches pulmonary blood flow, CO2 is eliminated and the blood becomes fully saturated
What is an Inflation Reflex?
- Stretch reflex (Buroreceptors)
- Cause inhibitory impulse f the vagus nerve (Prevents excessive stretch, Inhibit inspiration, Allow expiration to occur)
Where are the locations of the Chemoreceptors?
- Central (In the Medulla)
- Peripheral (In the Carotid arteries (Bifurcation of the common carotid) and Aortic Arch)
How many ribs are there?
- 12 each side
- 8 are true 4 are floating
How many vSpinal Vertebrae are there?
- 7 Cervical
- 12 Thoracic
- 5 Lumbar
What is the Pleurae of the lungs?
- Thin double layer (Perietal, Visceral)
- Pleural space (Pleural fluid)
What is the Visceral Pleura?
Covers the actual lung
What is the Parietal Pleura?
Covers the Thoracic cavity
What does TV stand for?
What does IRV, ERV and RV stand for?
- IRV: Inspiratory Reserve Volume
- ERV: Expiratory Reserve Volume
- RV: Residual volume
How much volume does the emerge person need for visual chest rise?
6-7cc/kg to get visible chest rise
What is the most common place a Emboli can originate?
- Leg is the most common
- Uterus is the second most common
What is the definition of a P.E.?
A pulmonary embolism is a blockage of an artery in the lungs caused by a clot that travels through the blood stream to the lungs
What is the cause of a P.E.?
- An embolism occurs then a clot moves through the bloodstream from the location where it was formed and becomes stuck in a blood vessel. The clot, called an embolus, can be a from:
- Blood clot
- Air bubble
- Piece of fat
- Bone marrow
- Tumor tissue
- Can be caused by trauma, remember to look for it
What is the Pathophysiology of a P.E.?
- Once the clot is stuck in a lung artery, it blocks the blood from nourishing that lung. The tissues on the other sude of the blockage may die if it doesn't receive enough blood from other sources
- Unlike other ischemic events; CVA or AMI the dying lung cells release toxins that cause additional lung cell to die. This can result in a P.E. that goes past the boundaries of the original insult
What are the SXS of a P.E.?
- Sudden-onset respiratory distress without difficulty moving air in and out (Normal breath sounds)
- Hypoxia develops quickly (SpO2 low despite given O2)
- Possible sudden, sharp chest pain
- Signs of obstructive shock (JVD, Tachycardia)
- Sudden SOB
- Feeling faint, light headed and dizzy
- Rapid breathing
how do we manage a P.E.?
- Assure adequate oxygenation and ventilation (O2 NRB @ 15lpm, Ventilate if necessary and an Upright position)
- Rapid transport to an appropriate medical facility
What is the Virchow's triad?
- Vessel wall injury
- Venous stasis
- Used in P.E.
What is the definition of Pneumonia?
- Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that affects the lower respiratory tract (small bronchi and air sacs in the lungs)
- Viral, bacterial of fungal infection of the lungs (Inflammation, fluid or puss in the lungs)
What are the main causes of Pneumonia?
- Bacteria: most commonly Streptococcus pneumonia
- Viral pneumonia: Caused by a virus. Viruses cause half of all pneumonias
- Atypical Bacterial pneumonia: Caused by Mycoplasmas, chlamydias, or other tiny infectious agents that have traits of both bacteria and viruses
What is the short list of SXS of Pneumonia?
- Productive Cough
- Pleuritic Chest Pain (Hurts to breath or cough)
What is the Long list of SXS of pneumonia?
- Fever, chills (may include shaking)
- Produces green, yellow, or rust-colored mucus
- Dry cough
- Violent at times; produce white mucus
- Chest pain
- Possible nausea or vomiting
- Profuse sweating
- Muscle pain
- Cyanosis of the nails or lips
- Confused mental state
How do we treat pneumonia?
- Monitor SPO2
What are the types of pulmonary edema?
- Cardiogenic pulmonary edema
- Non-cardiac pulmonary edema
What are the common causes for pulmonary edema?
- Commonly due to left ventricular failure
- Ineffective pump allows blood to back up into pulmonary circulation (Congestive pulmonary capillaries leak fluid, interfering with gas exchange)
- Lung infection
- Toxic reaction (Smoke inhalation)
What 6 Etiology categories may pulmonary edema be placed in?
- Secondary to altered capillary permeability
- Secondary to increased pulmonary capillary pressure
- Secondary to decreased oncotic pressure found with hypoalbuminemia
- Secondary to lymphatic insufficiency
- Secondary to large negative pleural pressure with increased end expiratory volume
- Secondary to mixed or unknown mechanisms
What are the causes of Altered Capillary Permeability?
- Infectious causes
- Inhaled toxins
- Circulating exogenous toxins
- Vasoactive substance
- Disseminated intravascular Coagulopathy (DIC)
- Immunologic processes reaction
- Near drowning
- Other aspirations
What can cause Increased Pulmonary Capillary Pressure?
- Pulmonary venous thrombosis (P.E.)
- Stenosis or veno-occlusive disease
- Volume overload
What are the SXS of Pulmonary Edema?
- Extreme dyspnea
- Wet lung sounds
- Pink, frothy sputum
- Peripheral edema
- Skin may be diaphoretic or cold, gray, and cyanotic
- Wheezing or rales
- Lower extremity edema
- Frothy sputum
- Blood tinged sputum
What is an Antigen?
An Antigen is a toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, produces antibodies
What is an Antibody?
An antibody is a protein produces by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen
What is the Physiology of Anaphylaxis?
- Manufacture of IgE antibody
- Antibody attach to MAST cells
- Second exposure causes MAST cells to release powerful chemicals
What are the SXS of Anaphylaxis?
- Usually occurs < 30min of exposure to allergen (Hives and swelling)
- Respiratory distress
- Altered Mental status
What is Urticaria, angioedema and anaphylaxis are manifestations of the immediate hypersensitivity reaction. Immediate hypersensitivity reaction that occurs within minutes to hours of exposure to a particular antigen by an immune individual. Twenty percent of the population will have one of these manifestations, especially urticaria. Pathophysiology
What is Uticaria?
Hives are an intensely itchy rash that consists of raised, irregularly shaped wheals. The wheals have blanched center, surrounded by a red flare. Urticaria is caused by histamine released from dermal mast cells. Histamine release is most commonly causes by an immunologic reaction between antigens and IgE antibodies bound to mast cell membranes. Histamines cause increased vascular permeability. Antigens, chemicals and physical agents (Detergents or ultraviolet light) can cause urticaria.
What is Angioedema?
Angioedema is an area of circumscribed swelling of any part of the body. It may be caused by the same mechanisms that cause hives
What is Angioneurotic Edema?
- An allergic reaction
- Edema of the tongue and pharynx, larynx
- NOT the SAME as anaphylaxis
What is Anaphylaxis?
- Anaphylaxis is the acute reaction that occurs when an antigen is introduced systemically into an individual who has preexisting IgE antibodies
- Affects big 3 systems
What is the Mellampati Classifications?
A method used by Anesthesiologist, reliable to predict difficulty directing Laryngoscopy
What are the classifications of Mallampati?
- Class I: Soft palate, uvula, faces and pillars are visible
- Class II: Soft palate, uvula and faces visible
- Class III:Soft palate, base of uvula visible
- Class IV: Hard palate only visible
What are the Grades of Cormack and Lehave?
- POGO (Percentage Glottic Opening Observed)
- Grade I: Largely open
- Grade II: Wide but short
- Grade III: Short and narrow
- Grade IV: No visible opening
- All refer to the larynx
What does Atelectasis mean?
Partial or complete lung collapse
What is the definition of a Flail chest?
- 2 or more ribs broken in 3 or more locations
- Visible flail segment Paradoxical movement
Which ribs are the most commonly fractured?
- 5-8 according to Cy
- 4-8 according to the book
Fractures to ribs 10-12 cause to damage to what underlying organs?
What is Marfan's syndrome?
- Can cause a Spontaneous pneumothorax
- Tall, thin males
What is an Open Pneumothorax?
- Hole in the chest wall that allows air to enter pleural space.
- Larger the hole the more likely air will enter than through the trachea
What is the most common location for SQ emphysema?
Around the neck
What is the most field expedient way to manage a Open Pneumothorax?
With a Gloved hand
What is a Tension pneumothorax?
A tension pneumothorax is a Pneumothorax that compresses the lung to where is is symptomatic
What is a Hemothorax?
A Hemothorax is where blood accumulates in the pericardial sac, creating tension. A Tension pneumothorax but with blood
What is Cardiovascular Trauma?
An patient with significant blunt or penetrating trauma to chest has heart/great vessel injury until proven otherwise
What is a Pericardial Tamponade?
Rapid accumulation of blood in the inelastic pericardium
What is Beck's Triad?
- Resistant hypotension
- Increased central venous pressure (Distended neck/arm veins in presence of decreased arterial BP)
- Small quiet heart (Decreased "Muffled heart tones)
What is Pulses Paradoxicus?
Different pressure inspiration VS. Expiration
What is Traumatic Asphyxia?
- Increased Intrathoracic pressure
- Backward flow of blood out of right heart into vessels of upper chest and neck
- Name given to these patients because they looked like they had been strangled or hanged
What is a Diaphragmatic Rupture?
- Usually due to blunt trauma but may occur with penetrating trauma
- Usually life threatening
- Likely to be associated with other severe injuries
How do we Manage a Tracheobronchial Rupture?
- Establish airway, consider early intubation
- Emergent transport (Intubating Right or Left mainstem may be life saving
How do we manage Esophageal Injuries?
- Establish airway
- Consider early intubation if possible
- IV LR/NS titrated to BP 90-100mmHg
- Emergent Transport
How do we manage a Diaphragmatic Rupture?
- Establish airway
- Assist ventilations with high concentration O2
- IV of LR
- monitor EKG
- NG tube if possible
How do we manage Traumatic Asphyxia?
- Airway with C-spine control
- Assist ventilations with high concentrations of O2
- spinal stablilization
- IV of LR
- Monitor EKG
- MAST in severely hypotensive patients
- Rapid transport
How do we manage Traumatic Aortic Dissection/Rupture?
- Establish airway
- High concentration O2
- Maintain minimal BP in dissection
- IV LR/NS TKO
- Emergent transport
What are some upper respiratory infections?
What is Influenza?
Influenza is a highly contagious viral respiratory tract infection
What is acute/subacute and chronic Sinusitis?
- Acute Sinusitis: This type of infection occurs quickly and gets better with the appropriate treatment
- Subacute Sinusitis: This type of infection does not get better with treatment initially and lasts less then three months
- Chronic Sinusitis: These symptoms last longer then three oaths
What is Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis?
- Pharyngitis and tonsillitis are infections in the throat that cause inflammation. If the tonsils are primary affected, it is called tonsillitis. If the throat is primarily affected, it is called pharyngitis. A person might even have inflammation and infection of both the tonsils and the throat. This would be called Pharyngotonsillitis.
- Bacterial infections are more common during the winter, Viral infections are more common in the summer and fall.
What is Epiglottis?
Epiglottis is a life-threatening condition that occurs when the epiglottis - a small cartilage "lid" that covers the windpipe - swells, blocking the flow if air into the lungs.
What is Laryngitis?
- Laryngitis is an inflammation of the voice box (larynx) due to overuse, irritation or infection. Normally your vocal cords open and close smoothly, forming sounds though their movement and vibration. But laryngitis, the vocal cords become inflamed or irritated. They swell, causing distortion of the sound produced by air passing over them. As a result, the voice sound hoarse. In some cases of laryngitis, the voice can become so faint as to be undetectable. Laryngitis may be acute or chronic. Although acute laryngitis usually is nothing more than an irritation and inflammation fro a virus, persistent hoarseness can signal a more serious problem.
- Croup in children
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