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The Scientific study of social interactions and social organization
The ability to see experience, personal diffculties and achievements, in part, as reflection of structural arrangements of society and times in which we live
Detailed tudy of everyday life of individuals
Large-Scale, long-term social processes of organizations, institutions and broad social patterns
Who is Auguste Comte?
Founder of Sociology and Social Statics and Social Dynamics
According to Auguste Comte what is Social Statics?
Order, stability and organization
According to Auguste Comte what is Social Dynamics?
Development and social change
Who is Harriet Martineau?
She is technically a feminesist and paved the way for the new disipline through her observations of sical behavior in the United States and England
What is Harriet Martineau frist book?
Her first book on the methodology of social research, How to Observe Manners and Morals.
Who is Herbert Spencer?
He compared society to a biological organism and depicted it as a system, a whole made up of interrelated parts.
What is Social Darwinism?
Mean Survival of the Fittest of the Social World.
Explain Herber Spencers Comparison to Biological Organisms to Society.
Has a Human body is made up of organs, Society is made up of instiutions (ex. Family, Religion and Education)
Herberts Spencer's Comparison to Biological Organisms to Socity can be term as what?
Who is Karl Marx?
The Sociologist that came up with Class COnflict and Dialectical Materialism.
What is Class Conflict?
Society divided between those who own the means of production and those who do not.
What is Dialectical Materialism?
Development depends on the clash of contradictions on clash of contracdictions and emergence of more advanced structures.
Who is Emile Durkheim?
He came up iwth Soical Integration.
What is Social Integration according to Emile Durkheim?
The density of social relationships in a collection of people.
What book the Emile Durkheim Write?
The Divison of Labor in Society
What did The Divison of Labor in Society by Emile Durkheim deal with?
- Mechanical Vs. Organic Solidarity
- Social Facts
What is Mechanical Vs. Organic Solidarity according to The Division of Labor in Society by Emile Durkheim?
Mechanical solidarity is the feeling of being connected because of work, religion, or education; where as, Organic Solidarity is the connection because of they compliment each other.
What is Social facts according to Emile Durkheim?
Aspects of life that cannot be explained at the invdividual level.
Who is Max Weber?
He orginated bureaucracy, lifestyle, Protestant Ethic, and Charisma.
What is Verstehen according to Max Weber?
It is the study of human subjectivity or "Understanding" or "Insight"
What is Ideal Type according to Max Weber?
Focus on principal characteristics of subject and ignore minor differences.
What is the imporatance of Value-Free Sociology by Max Weber?
It allows to you look at sociology unbaisly.
Where was the first Sociology Department?
University of Chicago.
Who founded the Hull House?
Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr
According to Contemporary Sociology what is Critical Theory?
Critical of sociology because it viewed individuals as passive, helpless entities
According to Contemporary Sociology what is Feminism?
Evolving set of theoretical perspectives focused on women's part in society
According to Contemporary Sociology what is Potmodernism and what are the two characteristics?
- Distrust scidentific approach.
- 1. Scientifice Knowledge as much product of socially determined interests and biases of investigators as it is of facts.
- 2. Modern image-based age makes structure-based social theories obsolete.
What is the Theoretical Perspective?
It provides a set of assumptions, interrelated concepts and statments about how various social phenomena relate to one another.
What are three chacateristic of Functionalist Perspective of the Theoretical Perspectives?
- 1. Society is a system, a set of elements or components that related to one another in a more or less stable fashion through a period of time.
- 2. To survive essential functions must be performed by the system's parts
- 3. They pay attention to Functions, performed by system's parts, epecially organizations, groups, institutions, and cultural elements.
What are the Three charatertistics of the Conflict Perspective?
- 1. Emphassizes disorder, instability, interests that divide, and social change
- 2. Power
- 3. Difficulty dealing with some aspects of conensus, integreation, and stability
What is power according to Conflict perspective and what are the two charatisitics?
- Power is the ability to control behavior of others, even against their will.
- 1. Determines who gains and who loses
- 2. Society persists because no one conflict can become so great as to tear society apart.
What are the two characteristics of Interactionist perpective of Theoretical perspectives?
- 1. Emphasizes personal, symbolic interaction based on shared meanings.
- 2. Micro-dimension of social life.
What are the characterisitcs Micro-demension of social life according to the Interactionist perpective of Theoretical perspectives?
- 1. Symbol is something that stands for something else, called meaning
- 2. Meaning emerge from social interaction
- 3. Shared cultural meanings continually emerge and change
- 4. Has limitations
What is a Theory?
General framework that provides explanation for a specific social phenomenon.
Science assumes events or actions result from ___________.
What is an Independent Variable?
Variable that causes an effect
What is dependent variable?
Variable that is affected
What is a Hypothesis?
Proposition that can then be tested to determine its validity
what is an Experiment?
Reearchers work with two groups that made to be identical in all relevant respects through a proces of random assignment.
What is a survey?
Typically gathered through interviews or prepared questionnaire
what is a random sample?
Researchers select subjects on basis of chance so every individual in a population has same opportunity to be chosen
What is a stratified random sample?
Researchers divide population into relevant categories and draw a random sample from each category
What are five reasons why observation can become a primary tool of sociological inquiry?
- 1. Part of clear research objective
- 2. Undertaken in systematic manner
- 3. Carefully recorded
- 4. Related to broader body of sociological knowledge and theory
- 5. Subjected to checks and controls applied to all scientific evidence.
What is comparative and historical research?
Archival research uses existing records produced or maintained by persons other than the reearcher
What are two Feminist research goals?
- 1. Include women's lives in social research and reveal divsersity in women.
- 2. Seek results that are of value to women, promote social change, and reduce inequality.