Inflammation and Immunity

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Author:
jbaalmann
ID:
49249
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Inflammation and Immunity
Updated:
2010-11-16 14:56:31
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CD Markers other activators
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  1. CD1
    Glycolipid presentation to NKT cells
  2. CD3
    Signaling shains for T cells receptor
  3. CD4
    Co-receptor for MHC class II restricted T cells (T helpers)
  4. CD8
    Co-receptor for MHC class I restricted T cells (Cytotoxic)
  5. CD11
    • Alpha chain of beta-2 integrin family
    • CD11a/CD18 forms LFA-1
    • CD11b/CD18 forms CR3
    • CD11c/CD18 forms CR4
  6. CD14
    LPS co-receptor
  7. CD18
    • Beta chain of beta-2 integrin family
    • Deficient in LAD
  8. CD19
    Signal transducer on B cells
  9. CD20
    Chain of CR2 co-receptor
  10. CD21
    Chain of CR2 co-receptor
  11. CD25
    Alpha chain of IL-2 receptor
  12. CD28
    Co-receptor on T cells that bind B7
  13. CD34
    • Marker on hematopoietic stem cells
    • Mediates attachment of stem cells to bone marrow ECM
  14. CD40
    Co-receptor on B cells that bind T cell CD154
  15. CD45
    Tyrosine phosphatase on T and B cells
  16. CD55
    • Membrane decay accelerating factor
    • Deficient in PNH
  17. CD59
    Membrane regulator of MAC assembly
  18. CD154
    Ligan on T cells for B cell CD40
  19. LFA-1
    T cell co-receptor that binds ICAM-1 on APCs
  20. IL-1
    induces production of CSF and macrophages; induction of E-selectin on endothelium (endothelial cell activation); critical for endothelial-leukocyte interaction and subsequent leukocyte recruitment and production of acute phase reactants; fever induction
  21. IL-2
    • lymphocyte proliferation (Th1 cells)
    • Induces Tregs
  22. IL-3
    Stimulates the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells into myeloid progenitor cells; then stimulates proliferation of myeloid lineage cells (includes RBCs, megakeryocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells)
  23. IL-4
    • Induces class switching from IgM to IgG/E
    • Increased MHC class II expression
    • Th2 induction; inhibits Th1
  24. IL-5
    • Induces class switching to IgA
    • Increased Ig synthesis and eosinophil proliferation
    • Blocks switching to IgG3
  25. IL-6
    Induces differentiation into plasma cells
  26. IL-7
    Induces T and B cell proliferation (lymphopoiesis)
  27. IL-8 (CXCL8)
    • Attracts neutrophils and macrophages to site of injury
    • Leads to release of histamine
  28. IL-10
    • Anti-inflammatory cytokine
    • Inhibits Th1 activation
  29. IL-12
    • Co-activator of NK and NKT cells
    • Induces Th1 to secrete IFNgamma
  30. IL-13
    Induces class switching to IgE
  31. IL-15
    Induces proliferation of NK cells and memory CytT cells
  32. IL-17
    • Neutrophil infiltration and activation
    • Produced in the gut by Th17 cells whose differentiation is dependent on TGFbeta and IL-6
  33. TGFbeta
    • Induces class switching to IgA
    • Acts as a chemokine to attract neutrophils and macrophages to site of injury
    • Anti-inflammatory cytokine (inhibits macrophage activation)
  34. TNFalpha
    • Induces the production of CSF and macrophages; induces E-selecting on edothelium; critical for endothelial-leukocyte interactions and subsequent recruitment of leukocytes adn production of acute phase reactants (similar to IL-1)
    • Triggers Apoptosis
    • Driving force in RA
  35. TNFbeta
    • Acts a lymphotoxin to hasten the deposition of collagen
    • Induces Apoptosis
  36. IFNalpha/beta
    • Acts as an antiviral to interfere with virus replication
    • Co-activates macrophages
    • Induces MHC class I
  37. IFNgamma
    • The primary macrophage-activating cytokine
    • Induces TNFalpha and IL-1 secretion
    • Increases expression of MHC class II
    • Induces CD4 TH1 cells
    • Inhibits Th2 cells
  38. Fc gamma receptors
    • Induces the phagocytosis of opsonized (coated with either Ab or complement) microbes
    • Involved in intracellular signaling
  39. Fc epsilon receptors
    IgE receptor on mast cells; when it cross-links IgEs bound to antigen, degranulation of mast cells is triggered
  40. CTLA4
    • Expressed on T cell surfaces
    • Binds B7 tighter than CD28 and inhibits T cells
    • Target in immune therapy (Abatacept)
  41. PGE2
    • In the hypothalamus
    • Resets the temperature set point at a higher level with systemic infection (causes fever)
  42. CCL4
    Chemokine for T cells, dendritic cells, NK cells, and monocytes
  43. COX1
    • Cyclooxygenase 1
    • constitutive, homeostatic enzyme
    • Protects the gastric mucosa, regulates platelet aggregation, peripheral vascular resistance, renal perfusion distribution and Na excretion
  44. COX2
    • Cyclooxygenase 2
    • inducible, pro-inflammatory enzyme
    • Production of PGs from arachadonic acid in fibroblasts, macrophages and other cells
  45. PGD2
    • prostaglandin D2
    • Affects vasodilation; increases vascular permeability
  46. PGE2/PGI2
    • Prostaglandins
    • pro-inflammatory functions (vasodilation, increased vascular permeability and osteoclastic bone resorption)
    • anti-inflammatory functions (inhibit T-cell responses, IL-2, block B cell maturation)
  47. LTD4
    • Leukotriene D4
    • Increase in vascular permeability, smooth muscle contraction and mucus secretion
  48. TXA2
    • Thromboxane
    • Vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation and bronchoconstriction
  49. AP-1
    Activates IL-2
  50. HIF1
    • Hypoxia-Induced Factor
    • Expression of genes involved in inflammation and VEGF, TGF, EGF and erythropoietin (EPO)
  51. Factor XIIa
    • Hageman factor
    • Induces both the coagulation and fibrinolytic pathway (as well as kinin and complement cascade)
  52. Substance P
    • Neuropeptide
    • Release of histamine
    • Increases vascular permeability
  53. Bradykinin
    • Vascular dilation and pain
    • short acting end product of kinin system
    • Increased vascular permeability
  54. Serotonin
    • Released from platelets
    • Dilation of arterioles
    • Increased permeability of venules
    • Short duration of action
  55. Histamine
    • Dilation of arterioles
    • Increased permeability of venules
    • Short duration of action
  56. PAF
    • Platelet activating factor; produced by phospholipase A2
    • Redistributes P-selectins to cell surface from the Weibel-Palade bodies
    • Vasodilator
    • Increases vascular permeability
    • Effects platelet aggregation
    • At high concentrations, it causes vaso and bronchoconstriction
  57. PDGF
    • Platelet derived growth factor
    • Acts as a chemokine to attract neutrophils and macrophages to site of injury
  58. LTB4
    Endogenous chemoattractant; product of arachidonic acid pathway
  59. c5a
    • Acts as a chemokine to attract neutrophils and macrophages to site of injury
    • also attracts eosinophils & basophils
  60. CRP
    • C-reactive protein
    • Binds bacterial phospholipids
    • Mediates phagocytosis
    • Increased during inflammation/infection
  61. CR1
    • Mediates clearance of immune complexes bearing C3b or C4b
    • Found in highest density on surface of erythrocytes
  62. c3b
    • solubilizes large immune complexes and prevents IC disease
    • opsonin
  63. C3d
    • coactivates B cells through CR2
    • iC3b cleaved by Factor I to form C3d

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