Pharmacology Exam 4

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Author:
Rx2013
ID:
49251
Filename:
Pharmacology Exam 4
Updated:
2010-11-13 12:38:12
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CNS Pharmacology
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CNS Pharmacology
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  1. Drugs that act in the CNS and are important tools for studying CNS Pharmacology
    • TTX tetrodotoxin
    • Strychnine
  2. Pineal Body
    circadian rhythm regulation
  3. Hypothalamus
    neuro endocrine regulation
  4. Cerebral Cortex
    • integrates sensory and motor activity
    • thought, memory and consciousness
  5. Limbic system
    integrates emotional state with motor coordination
  6. 4 parts of the limbic system
    • basal ganglia
    • hippocampus
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
  7. Basal ganglia
    forms extrapyramidal motor system
  8. Hippocampus
    incorporates recent memory
  9. Hypothalamus
    • integrates autonomic nercous system
    • body temp, blood pressure, water balance...
  10. Pyramidal system
    • controlled by pyramidal neurons
    • located in outer cerebral cortex in motor strip
    • move limbs according to thought
    • voluntary movement
  11. extrapyramidal system
    • located in deep brain structures
    • controlls tone & posture
    • involuntary
  12. Brain stem
    • contains nuclei of cranial nerves
    • major mono-amine containing neurons
    • coordinates essential reflexes (swallowing, vomiting, respiration)
    • contains reticular activating system and chemoreceptor trigger zone
  13. Reticular activating system
    • located in brain stem
    • regulates sleep/wake
    • eye movements
  14. Chemoreceptor Trigger Zone
    • in the brain stem
    • responds to drugs and causes emesis
  15. Cerebellum
    • body posture in space
    • visceral function
    • learning and memory
  16. Spinal cord
    • motor neurons
    • sensory relay cells
    • convey signals between brain and periphery
  17. Hierarchical neronal system
    • directly involved in sensory perception and motor control
    • large mylenated fibers
    • fast conduction
  18. Hierarchical neuronal system contains 2 types of neurons:
    • relay/projection: excitatory/glutamate
    • local circuit: inhibitory/GABA or glycine
  19. Diffuse or nonspecific neuronal system
    • monoamine or peptide containing pathway
    • unmylenated axons, slow conduction
    • non-specific information
    • sleep/wake, attention, appetite & emotion
  20. Classifications of neurons
    • Function
    • location
    • neurotransmitter
  21. Feed Forward
    Separate neuron inhibits
  22. Recurrent interaction
    • excitatory neuron synapse on inhibitory neuron when inhibits the same excitatory neuron
    • Circle system
  23. Ionotropic receptors
    • fast SN
    • hierarchical pathway
  24. Metabotropic receptor
    • diffuse neuronal system
    • slow
  25. 3 criteria of neurotransmitters
    • localization in presynaptic terminals
    • released with presynaptic activity
    • synaptic mimicry when applied to target cells
  26. GABA A
    • CL- channels
    • agonist is muscimol
    • antagonist is picrotoxin and bicuculine
  27. GABA B
    • GPCR
    • Agonist: baclofen
    • Antagonist: 2-OH-saclofen
  28. Glutamate ionotropic receptor
    • excitatory
    • NMDA
    • Kainate
    • AMPA
  29. Metabotropic glutamate receptors
    excitatory and inhibitory
  30. glycine receptors
    • inhibitory
    • agonist : taurine, beta-alanine
    • antagonist: strychnine
  31. Acetylcholine system
    • sleep/wake
    • learning & memory
    • deficiency = alzheimers
  32. Dopamine system
    • deficiency = parkinsons
    • reward system
  33. Norepinephrine system
    • attention
    • sleep/wake
    • learning & memory
    • anxiety & pain
    • mood & metabolism
  34. Serotonin system
    • Raphe nuclei
    • sleep/wake & stages of sleep
    • mood/emotions
    • ascending reticular activating system
  35. Features of peptide neurotransmitters
    • act in concert with co-existing transmitter
    • some neurons contain more than two peptide transmitters
  36. 4 ways peptide neurotransmitters differ from monoamine and amino acid transmitters
    • translated from mRNA in the ER
    • synthesized in the precursor
    • transported to the terminals from the perinuclear cytoplasm
    • no active reuptake mechanisms
  37. General or non-specific CNS depressants
    • General anesthetics
    • some sedative hypnotics
    • alcohol
    • local anesthetics if applied systemically
  38. General or non-specific CNS stimulants
    • analeptics
    • methylxanthines
    • amphetamines
  39. Exampels of analeptics
    • strychnine
    • pentylenetetrazol
    • picrotoxin
  40. examples of methylxanthines
    caffeine
  41. Selective CNS stimulants and depressants
    • anticonvulsants
    • anti PD
    • opiates
    • non-opiate and antipyretics
    • muscle relaxers
    • anxiolitic/antipsychotics
    • antidepressants/anti-manics

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