Psychology Test 3
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Psychology Test 3
Intro to psychology 101
What is the facial feedback hypothesis?
Your muscles in your face that make facial expressions
If you make expression, you will start to feel the expression
What are the display rules?
norms for the control of emotional expression
How much emotion?
When it is appropriate?
Who is it okay to express emotion to?
These rules apply mostly to woman- cover face- than to men
What is emotion deception?
Morphology- look of the muscles in the face- false smile vs. genuine smile- genuine=eyes crinkle
Symmetry- cover the whole face (both sides)- contempt
Duration- genuine smile is a longer duration usually- suprise is short
Ghrelin- hunger chemical produced in stomach and then goes to the brain to tell the brain when it is hungry
Leptin- We are satisfied- chemical that tells us that we aren't hungry
Lateral hypothalamus- top of brain- experience hunger
Ventromedial Hypothalamus- underside of brain- turns off hunger
What are some common eating disorders?
Bulimia nervose- binging and purging
Anorexia nervose- not eating
Obesity- overeating, high BMI (weight/ height)
What happens in prenantal development?
Germinal stage, embryonic stage, fetal stage, viability
What happens during the germinal stage?
fetelization through 2 weeks
zygote- fertilized egg
Pregnancy starts at germinal stage- not fertilization
1/2 of fertilized eggs don't make it to pregnancy- rough estimate because you don't know your pregnant
What happens during the embryonic stage?
2 weeks through 2 months
What happenes during the fetal stage?
2 months through birth
Developing the baby
What is viability?
Ability to survive outside of the mothers woumb
26 weeks is when most babies survive
What are Terotogens?
Fetal Alcohol syndrome- physical effects- small eyes, thin upper lip, gorve between nose and mouth is gone, small head, small eyes
Toxoplasmosis- fish (mercury), found in cat litter
What is motor development?
Occurs about 6 months after birth
Rooting reflex- rub cheek, baby will turn head and try to suck on your finger
Moro Reflex- Startle reflex- stretch out but pull in and cry- happenes when you bounce the baby
Grasp reflex- babies hand grasps yours
Babinski Reflex- stroke bottom of foot, toes will spread out
What is the cephalocaudal rule?
head to foot- Development starts at lifting head and moves to walking
What is the proximodistal rule?
close to far- lift up chest and move fingers later
What is sensorimotor?
1.) sensorimotor- birth through 2 years- sensory to motor response (Feel to reaction)
Schemas- Our understanding of the way the world works
Assimiliation- apply our schemas to a new situation
Accomidation- mistaking cat for dog and revising schemas
Object permenance- Out of sight out of mind
Habituation- look at where baby stares and for how long
What is pre-operational?
2.) Pre-operational- 2 years to 6 years old
Conservation- don't understand changing shapes
Egocentrism/ theroy of mind- can't put themselves into other peoples persepectives
Adults- good because people don't notice our flaws
Theory of mind- developing understanding that we all have minds but different knowledge and opinion
What is concrete operational
3.) Age 6 through 11
shape doesnt change persepective- able to translate and reverse equation
What is formal operational
4.) Age 11 and older
Think more abstractly
Adolescent bruding- philisophical thinking- moodiness
Who is Jean Piaget?
Researcher who played with kids to develop the 4 stages of cognitive development
Who was Harlow?
A monkey that was immediately sperated from its mother
Proved that relationship is built by comfort
Most animals die from not seeing their mother
Imprint- Where mother goes, baby goes- even in humans but not in reptiles
Sets young up for future relationships
What is the attachment theory?
Stage situation test
secure- confident= upset at first, but comforted when mom returns- 60% of toddlers
Ambivalent- Swinging emotions- lot's of anxiety and not comforted when mom returns-15%
Avoidant- no anxiety-20%
Disorganized- no clear pattern-5%
What does temperament mean?
Child is born with a particular personality
Not the parents fault
Kids learn from kids
50% of traits are genetic(nature)
What is Erikson's theory?
Each stage of life has an issue
Trust vs. mistrust- birth to age 1-do they have a secure attachment with their mother?- nurture
Autonomy vs. shame/doubt- age 1 to 3- independence- potty train? no shame/ doubt
Initiative vs. guilt- Age 3 to 6- responsibility, ititiative= success, guilt= punishment, good kid vs. bad kid
Industry vs. inferiority- age 6 to 12- success vs. compency, compare themselves to other kids
Identity vs. confusion- age 12 to 18- identity crisis, group conformity, amish decision
Intimacy vs. isolaion- age 19 through 40- intimate relationship or isolated, married people are happier that single people, marriage is harder on woman than men
Generativity vs. stagnation- age 40-65- peak of ones career, are you leaving something of value behind you?
Integretity vs.despair-age 65 to death, retirement- has life been worth it or worthless?
What is Kohlberg's theory?
Moral vs. need
Preconventional- consequences= get caught, get punished
Conventional- follow the rules- they are there for a reason
post conventional- look at underlying principles- Is it okay to break the law for principles?