Pharm.4

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49305
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Pharm.4
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2010-11-13 23:01:00
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Pharm test 4 drugsis
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  1. Digoxin
    • cardiac glycoside
    • inc CO by inc myocardial contractility via Ca2+
  2. Digitoxin
    • cardiac glycoside
    • inc CO by inc myocardial contractility via Ca2+
  3. Causes of Acute Heart Failure
    • acute MI
    • cardiac arrythmia
    • valve issues
    • end stage chronic heart failure
  4. Dobutamine
    • B1 agonist
    • = inc CO
    • tx. of acute heart failure
  5. Dopamine
    • converted to epi and norepi
    • sustains blood flow to kidneys via dopamine receptors
    • inc CO
    • tx AHF
  6. Milrinone
    • phophodiexterase 3 inh
    • tx. AHF
    • inc cAMP, inc contract, inc CO
  7. Atropine
    • musc rec antag
    • blocks effects of para n.s. on heart
    • inc CO
    • Tx. AHF
  8. Digitalis Antibodies
    tx glycoside overdose
  9. captopril
    • ace inh
    • chf
  10. enalopril
    • ace inhib
    • chf
  11. losartan
    • angiotension receptor blocker
    • only used when pt.'s cannot tollerate ace inh
    • chf
  12. spirinolactone
    • administration w/ an ace inhib reduces morbidity and moratlity > an ace inhib alone
    • antag at aldosterone rec
    • K+ sparing
    • weakest diruetic
  13. hydrochlorothiazide
    • thiazide diruetic
    • moderate efficacy
    • produced hypokalemia
  14. chlorthalidone
    • thiazide diruetic
    • moderate efficacy
    • produced hypokalemia
  15. furosemide
    • loop diuretic
    • high efficacy
    • produced hypokalemia
  16. ethyacrynic acid
    • loop diuretic
    • high efficacy
    • produced hypokalemia
  17. hydralazine
    • arterial dilator
    • dec afterload
    • good for fatigue symptoms
  18. isosorbide dinitrate
    • venous dilator
    • dec preload
    • good for pulmonary edema
  19. carvedilol
    • one of 3 B-blockers that work for chf
    • also a1 antage = vasodilator
  20. bispropolol
    • one of 3 B-blockers that work for chf
    • selective
  21. metoprolol
    • one of 3 B-blockers that work for chf
    • selective
  22. Glycoside Characteristics
    • reduced congest symptoms and improved exercise tolerance
    • reduce lethality from PROGRESSIVE damage but inc SUDDEN death
    • margin of safety is VERY LOW: RISK of caridac arrhythmias
    • overdose tx w/ antibodies
  23. insulin lispro
    • ultra-short acting
    • 4-6
  24. insulin aspart
    • ultra-short acting
    • 4-6
  25. insulin glulisine
    • ultra-short acting
    • 4-6
  26. insulin
    • short acting
    • 6-8h
  27. NPH insulin
    • intermediate acting
    • 14-18
    • good for twice a day inj for basal level reg
  28. insulin glargine
    • long acting
    • 24
    • good basal reg
  29. insulin detemir
    • long acting
    • 24 hr
    • good basal reg
  30. pramlintide
    • synthetic AMYLIN analog
    • dec gastric emptying
    • reduces glucagon secretion
    • suppresses appetite
  31. glyburid
    • 2nd gen sulfonylurea
    • short acting and safer
    • a secretagogue
  32. glimepiride
    • 3rd gen sulfonylurea
    • longer acting
    • more efficacious due to effect in the liver
    • secretagogue
  33. repaglinide
    • Meglitinide
    • quick onset and short duraction
    • used in combination
    • secretagogue
  34. metformin
    • biguanide
    • first-choice drug
    • weight loss!!
    • enhances insulin effects
    • glucose to lactic acid
  35. rosiglitazone
    • tzd
    • Avandia
    • reg at PPAR
    • inc insulin response to muscle and fat glucose uptake
    • weeks to begin working
    • Euglycemic
  36. pioglitazone
    • tzd
    • Actos
    • reg at PPAR
    • inc insulin response to muscle and fat glucose uptake
    • weeks to begin working
    • Euglycemic
  37. SE of TZD's
    • liver toxicity
    • weight gain
    • altered lipid profile
    • bone fracture in post-menopausal women
    • fluid retention/edema resulting in weight gain & CHF (Avandia)
  38. exenatide
    • synthetic incretin
    • GLP-1 receptor agonist
  39. sitagliptin
    • inhibit enzyme DPP-4
    • taken ORALLY!
    • prevent incretin metabolism
  40. acarbose
    • alpha glucosidase inhibitor
    • prevent breakdown and therefore absorption of monosaccharides = reduce absorption of glucose precursors
  41. levothyroxine
    • synthetic T4
    • tx. chronic hypothyroidism
    • delayed onset
  42. liothyronine
    • synthetic T3
    • short half-life
    • acute insufficiency
    • risk of cardiotoxicity
  43. methimazole
    • tx hyperthyroidism
    • young pt.
    • mild ht
    • - inh thyroid peroxidase
  44. propylthiouracil
    • tx hyperthyroidism
    • young pt.mild ht
    • first choice w/ pregnant women
    • - inh thyroid peroxidase
  45. potassium iodide
    • brings t3 down
    • inhibits t3 and t4 release
    • may result in latent hyperthyroid
    • prevents uptake of radioiodine
  46. propranolol
    • not used as monotherapy
    • tx hyperthroidism esp prevent storm
    • quick acting b-blocker blocks T3 effect on heart and t4 to t3
  47. Ablation
    • radioactive iodine
    • tx hyperthyroidism
  48. lithium
    • tx bipolar disorder
    • precipitates hypothyroid conditions
    • may be goitrogen
  49. amiodarone
    • tx cardiac arrhythmias
    • produce hypothyroidism
    • goitrogen
  50. cortisol
    endogenous corticoid
  51. Aldosterone
    • physiological minearlocorticoid
    • transcription effects which upregulate na/k pump
    • inc na reabsorption = inc water retention = inc bp
  52. deoxycorticosterone
    greater mineralocorticoid action
  53. fludrocortisone
    • synthetic mineralocorticoid
    • same effects as aldosterone
    • greater mineralocorticoid action
  54. cortisone
    • synthetic cortisol
    • slightly less activity than hydrocortisone
    • equal m and g actions
  55. hydrocortisone
    • syn cortisol which all others are based off of for activity
    • equal m and g actions
  56. prednisone
    greater glucocorticoid action
  57. prednisolone
    greater gluco action
  58. triamcinolone
    greater gluco action
  59. betamethasone
    great gluco action
  60. dexamethasone
    great gluco action
  61. aminoglutethamide
    glucocorticoid synthesis inh
  62. mifepristone
    glucocorticoid rec antagonist
  63. Adrenocortical hormone inhibitors
    • aminoglutethamide: glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor
    • mifepristone: glucocorticoid receptor antagonist (also terminates pregnancy)
    • spirinolactone: mineralocorticoid receptor antag
  64. ethinyl estradiol
    estrogen used in hormonal contraceptive
  65. levonorgestrel
    synthetic progestin used for part of hormonal contraceptive
  66. norethindrone
    synthetic progstrin for hormonal contraceptive
  67. Seasonale
    91 day, 7 day off extended preparation hormonal contraceptive that is newer
  68. Seasonique
    91 day, 7 day off extended hormonal contraceptive that is newer
  69. Lybrel
    • continuous hormonal contraceptive 365 days
    • eliminates periods
  70. mifepristone
    • RU-486
    • abortion pill
    • antag on progest and blucocort rec
    • luteolytic
  71. Plan B
    • contraceptive pill "morning after"
    • high dose levonorgestrel
  72. clomiphene
    • Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)
    • blocks negative feedback
    • stimulates gonadotropin release
  73. gonadorelin
    • fertility drug
    • synthetic GnRH
    • stimulates gonadotropin release
  74. menotropin/hCG
    • fertility drug
    • gonadotropins (LH and /or FSH)
  75. premarin
    • conjugated estrogen
    • HRT for menopause
  76. prempro
    estrogen + progestin combination HRT therapy for menapause
  77. calcitriol
    • active form of vit D
    • increase Ca2+ release from bone
    • reduced Ca elim from kidney
    • increased Ca absorption in intestine
  78. Calciferol
    • Vit D3
    • promotes vit D responses
  79. Vitamin D
    directly promotes bone resorption, it indirectly promotes bone growth through its effects on systemic calcium levels
  80. PTH
    • parathyroid hormone
    • released in response to low systemic calcium
    • inc bone resorpt
    • inc renal reabsorpt
    • inc intest calcium absopt
  81. calcitonin
    • prevents bone resorption
    • less effective long term vs estrogen & bisphos
  82. calcium carbonate
    calcium supplements for tx osteoporosis
  83. teriparatide
    • recombinant PTH
    • anabolic = stimulate new bone formation!!
    • SC admin
  84. alendronate
    bisphosphonate drug for osteoporosis
  85. risedronate
    bisphosphonate for osteoporosis

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