flashcards lecture test 3.txt

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flashcards lecture test 3.txt
2010-11-13 18:21:56

lecture test 3
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  1. The average adult human heart is the size of
    Average fist
  2. The average normal heart rate is
    68-72 beats per minute
  3. What % of plasma is water/serum
  4. Things contained is plasma
    • Antibodies
    • O2
    • CO2
    • Electrolytes
    • Waste
    • Nutrients
    • Hormones
    • Vitamins
  5. HCG is
    • Human chronic gonadotropin
    • Produced in cancer of the uterus
  6. The human heart has how many chambers?
  7. The heart is covered by a sack called the
  8. The heart is made up of what type of muscle?
  9. Which chamber of the heart is the strongest?
    The left ventricle
  10. What is pulmonary circulation?
    The circulation of blood through the heart & lungs
  11. This transports deoxygenated blood from the upper extremities to the heart
    Superior vena cava
  12. This transports deoxygenated blood from the lower extremities to the heart
    Inferior vena cave
  13. The right upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the venae cavae
    The right atrium
  14. The valve located in the heart between the right atrium and right ventricle
    The tricuspid valve
  15. The heart strings located on the AV valves
    Chordae tendinae
  16. The chamber on the right side of the heart that receives blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary arteries
    right ventricle
  17. The valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
    Pulmonary semi-lunar valve
  18. This transfers blood away from the heart to the lungs
    Pulmonary artery
  19. These transfer oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
    Pulmonary veins
  20. The left upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veins
    left atrium
  21. Valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle
    Bicuspid valve
  22. The bicuspid valve is also known as
    Mitral valve
  23. The chamber on the left side of the heart that receives blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta
    left ventricle
  24. The left ventricle pumps blood through this valve into the aorta
    Aortic semi-lunar valve
  25. The blood leaves the heart and travels to the rest of the body by way of the
  26. Circulation of blood to the heart is called
    Coronary circulation
  27. The coronary arteries are located
    At the apex of the aorta on the inferior side
  28. The coronary arteries branch out into
    Secondary coronary arteries
  29. The electrical system of the heart is
    The purkenje system
  30. A small mass of electrical tissue stimulating the heart to beat or contract
    • SA node
    • Sino-Atrial node
  31. This is also called the pace maker of the heart
    SA node
  32. What is the function of the AV node or Atrio-Ventricular node
    It sends electrical impulses to the atria or atrial muscles
  33. This is a nerve network through the inter-atria ventricular septum
    Bundle of His
  34. These send the electrical impulses to the ventricles
    Purkenje fibers
  35. Atrio fidrulation or Afib is associated with
    The top chambers of the heart
  36. Ventricular firulation or Vfib is associated with
    • The bottom chambers of the heart
    • They are out of sync
  37. The lubb sound is created by
    The closing of the AV valves
  38. The AV valves are the
    Tricuspid & bicuspid valves
  39. The closing of the semilunar valve creates what sound
  40. A heart sound when there should not be one
    A murmur
  41. Treatment for an active murmur may include
    • A heart valve replacement
    • Natural or artificial
  42. An inactive murmur would require
    • No action
    • Just monitor
  43. An EKG or ECG is
    • An electrocardiogram
    • A picture of the electrical activity of the heart
  44. The P wave is the
    Atrial contraction pressure
  45. The ventricular contraction pressure is indicated on an EKG by the
    QRS wave
  46. The T wave is the
    ventricular relaxation pressure
  47. The term for when the chambers of the heart get larger & the muscle walls get thinner making the heart weaker
  48. Hypertrophy of the heart is caused by
    Too much pressure
  49. Systolic number is the
    • Top number
    • Ventricular contraction pressure
  50. Diastolic number is the
    • The bottom number
    • Ventricular relaxation pressure
  51. List types of resistance
    • Internal (I. R.)
    • Frictional (F. R.)
    • Peripheral (P. R.)
  52. The average BP is
  53. Blood pressure is measured with
    A sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope
  54. Internal resistance is caused by increased
    • Viscosity of the blood
    • Increased viscosity = increased resistance
  55. Increased RBCs
  56. Decreased RBCs
  57. Increased WBCs
  58. Decreased WBCs
  59. Increased platelets
  60. Decreased platelets
  61. A stationary blood clot
  62. A moving blood clot
    An embolus
  63. Frictional resistance is caused by
    The moving blood against the stationary blood vessel wall
  64. The build up of plaque on blood vessel walls is called
  65. As resistance increases so does
    Blood pressure
  66. Hardening of the arteries is called
  67. Peripheral resistance is caused by
    The inelasticity of blood vessel walls
  68. A bulge in a blood vessel wall is called
    An aneurysm
  69. List the three types of blood vessels
    • Arteries
    • Veins
    • & capillaries
  70. Characteristics of arteries
    • Carry blood away from the heart
    • Are made of smooth muscle
    • Largest in diameter of the blood vessels
  71. The largest artery is
    The aorta
  72. The arterial system is a ____ ______ system
    High pressure
  73. The aorta is ______ in diameter
  74. 3 Characteristics of veins
    • Carry blood toward the heart
    • Low pressure system
    • Has a system of one way valves to prevent flow of blood
  75. The smallest of all blood vessels
    • Capillaries
    • Size of average human hair
  76. The diameter of a capillary is
    • 10microns
    • Only 1 RBC can pass through at a time
  77. This is at the point where an artery & capillary meet
    Pre-capillary sphincter valve
  78. RBCs or red blood cells
    • A.K.A. Erythrocyte
    • 7.5 microns in diameter
    • Biconcave disc
    • 5.1x106/mm3
    • Contains hemoglobin
  79. Where are O2, CO2, waste, & nutrients exchanged
    In the capillaries
  80. The life span of a RBC is
    120 days
  81. Average hemoglobin is
    15g/100ml of blood
  82. Hematocrit is
    The % of RBCs in the blood
  83. Average hematocrit is
  84. What are the four basic blood types
    • A
    • B
    • AB
    • O
  85. What percent of the population has A type blood
  86. What percent of the population has B type blood
  87. What percent of the population has AB type blood
  88. What percent of the population has O type blood
  89. What stemulates antibody production
  90. What type of blood is known as the universal doner
    Type O
  91. The universal recipient has what blood type
    Type AB
  92. What type of antibody does A type blood have
  93. What type of antibody does B type blood have
  94. What type of antibody does AB type blood have
  95. What type of antibody does O type blood have
  96. A lack of or insufficient amount of blood or hemoglobin is
  97. List four types of anemia
    • Pernicious
    • Hemorahogic
    • Nutritional
    • Hemolytic
  98. What type of anemia is due to bone marrow malfunction?
    Pernicious anemia
  99. What type of anemia is due to a chronic blood loss
    Hemorahogic anemia
  100. What type of anemia is due to lack of iron in the diet? More common in mensruating females
    Nutritional anemia
  101. What type of anemia is due to destruction of erythrocytes (i.e. Sickle-cell anemia)
    Hemolytic anemia
  102. A congenital form of anemia occurring mostly in blacks & costal areas.
    Sickle-cell anemia
  103. A blood disease characterized by the abnormal presence of erythroblasts in the blood
    • Erythroblastosis fetalis (EF)
    • Hemolytic disease of Newborn (HDN)
  104. A blood group antigen possessed by Rh-positive people
    Rh factor
  105. % of people who are RH+ & RH-
    • 85% +
    • 15% -
  106. A macrophage is a
    Fixed or stationary monocyte
  107. A lung macrophage is a
  108. A Kupffer cell is
    A liver macrophage
  109. A fixed or stationary basophil is a
    Mast cell
  110. Lymphocytes
    • Make up 20-40% of circulating WBCs
    • Produce antibodies
  111. The life span of a leucocyte is
  112. Monocytes
    • Make up 8-10% of circulating WBCs
    • Are phagocytic
    • Lovers an indented nucleus
  113. How many WBCs are there in the human body
    • 5,000-10,000/mm3
    • Average 7,500/mm3
  114. PMN cell
    • Comprise 60-70% of circulating WBCs
    • #1 phagocytic WBC
    • A.K.A. Heterophil, neutrophil, seg cell
  115. These make up 2-6% of circulating WBCs are associated with allergic reactions & are phagocytic particularly to parasites
  116. These make up 0-1% of circulating WBCs, release heparin and histamine & act as an anticoagulant
  117. List the 5 classes of antibody molecules
    IgM, IgG, IgA, IgD & IgE
  118. The first made antibody (at 6mo-1yr) & the most abundant
  119. The only antibody that can cross the placenta
  120. The secretory antibody, found in lacrimal fluid, sweat...
  121. The least of the antibodies found in circulation. If high=bone marrow cancer
  122. The antibody associated with reagin allergies/allergic reactions
  123. A platelet is also called a
  124. The function of thrombocytes is
  125. There are on average how many platelets are ther /mm3?
  126. Clotting time is about
  127. A sex-linked genetic defect associated with the gene for clotting
    • Hemophilia
    • "bleeders disease"
  128. The liquid portion of the blood
    • Plasma
    • 55% of blood