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2010-11-13 19:08:02
gannon exam

Pathophys exam 4
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  1. Neoplasm/Tumor
    Abnormal new tissue growth characterized by the progressive uncontrolled multiplication of cells.
  2. Bronchogenic Carcinoma/Lung Cancer
    The most common malignant neoplasm in the lung originates from the bronchial mucosa.
  3. Primary CA
    Orginating in the lung
  4. Benign
    Slow growing, not life threatening, encapsulated, well-defined, localized
  5. Malignant
    Disorganized growth, invasice & metastatic.
  6. Metastatic
    Moves to lung from another source.
  7. Incidence
    Primary lung cancer is the most common malignancy in the USA

    One of the leading causes of death

    25% of Americans dying from cancet die from bronchogenic cardinoma

    Lung cancer has become the leading causes of death from cancer in woemn primarily because of the increased rate of cigarette smoking among women
  8. Cigarette Smoking
    Leads to the majority of lung cancers.

    Smokers have ten times the chance of dying from lung cancers as nonsmokers
  9. Nonsmokers
    Exposed to cigarette smoke also have an increased risk of lung cancer
  10. On the job exposure
    Carcinogens such as asbestos, uranium, insulations, brake materials, & petroleum products
  11. Air Pollution
    Asbestos exposure have also been linked to lung cancers
  12. Radon
    a radioactive inert gas that is produced by rocks, soil, and groundwater. Radon consideredd the second most common cause of lung cancer in the United States
  13. Epidemiology
    Genetic & Familial Factors that predispose individuals to bronchogenic carinoma

    Lung cancer is seen predominantly in persons between the ages of 45 & 75 years with a peak at age 70, it is rare occurrence in persons less tha the age of 35
  14. Pathologic Structural Changes
    Inflammation, swelling, & desctruction of the airways & alveoli. Excessive mucus production.

    Airway obstruction either mucus or tumor obstruction

    Atelectasis, pneumonia, lung abscess due to bronchial obstruction

    Cavity formation

    Pleural effusions

    Lymph nodes, liver, bone, braub, & adrenal glands are among common sites for distant metastasis.
  15. Lung Cancer Genes Identified
    3 genes are associated with 20% of lung cancers, and these same genes are linked to fetal lung development, researchers report

    These 3 genes work together to enable cancer cells appear to be unique to lung cancer

    Discovered a frequent genetic mutation in lung cancer. This mutation is found in 20% of non-small cell lung cancer which makes up 80% of all lung cancer.

    It may be possible to block these gene mutations and prevent tumor growth, Understanding how these genese work is importatnt for emdical applications.
  16. 4 types of bronchogenic Tumors
    Non-Small- cell cancer:

    • 1. Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • 2. Adenocarcinoma
    • 3. Large Cell Carinoma

    • Small-cell lung cancer:
    • 1.Small Cell Carinoma (Oat Cell)
  17. Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    Most common in men (30%-50%)

    Doubles every 100 days

    Late local metastatic tendency

    Can obstuct airways

    Commonly located in large bronchi near the hilar region

    Slow growth
  18. Small Cell Carcinoma
    Commonly called "Oat Cell"

    Commonly found near hilar region

    Doubles every 30 days- rapid

    Metastasizes early- poor prognosis

    20-25% of bronchogenic cancer

    Strong correlation with cigarette smoking
  19. Ardenocarcinoma
    Arises from the mucus glands of the tracheobronchial tree

    Doubles/ 180 days- moderate

    Found in peripheral portion of lung parenchyma

    Cavity formation and pleural effusions are common

    Women non-smokers
  20. Large Cell Carcinoma
    Growth rate is rapid

    Early metastatsis

    Doubles every 100 days

    Seen in about 10-15% of bronchogenic carcinoma cases

    Secondary complications include chest wall pain, pleural effusion, pneumonia, hemoptysis and cavity formation