Psych Chap 11

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Author:
mse263
ID:
49346
Filename:
Psych Chap 11
Updated:
2010-11-14 13:23:07
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Human Development
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Midterm 3
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  1. tetratogens
    environmental agents that harm the embryo or fetus; drugs, alcohol, bacteria, viruses, chemicals
  2. synaptic pruning
    a process where the synaptic connections in the brain that are frequently used are preserved, and those that are not are lost ("use it or lose it")
  3. critical period
    biologically determined time period for the development of specific skills
  4. sensitive periods
    the specific points in development at which some skills or kinds of knowledge are learned most easily
  5. attachment
    a strong emotional connection that persists over time and across stimulants (usually between a caregiver and child)
  6. secure attachment
    attachment style for a majority of infants, who are readily comforted when their caregiver returns after a brief separation; one of Ainsworth's three types of child attachments (65%)
  7. avoidant attachment
    attachment style in which infants IGNORE their caregiver when he or she returns after a brief separation; one of Ainsworth's three types of child attachments (20-25%)
  8. anxious-ambivalent attachment
    attachment style in which infants become extremely upset when their caregiver leaves but reject the caregiver when he or she returns; one of Ainsworth's three types of child attachments (10-15%)
  9. disorganized attachment
    attachment style in which infants give mixed responses when their caregiver leaves and then returns from a short absence (smiles at them, but displaying fear or avoidance)
  10. infantile amnesia
    what Freud referred to as the inability to remember events from early childhood
  11. source amnesia
    difficulty knowing where they learned something; prevalent in young children
  12. assimilation
    the process by which a new experience is placed into an existing schema
  13. accommodation
    the process by which a new schema is changed to imcorperate a new experience that doesn't easily fit into an existing schema
  14. sensorimotor
    birth-2 years; differentiates self from objects; recognizes self as an agents of ACTION! and acts intentionally (ex: pulls a string to make mobile move); achieves object permanence: things exist even when they're not present to the senses; one of Piaget's four stages of development
  15. preoperational
    2-7 years; learns to use language/represent objects by images/words; thinking is egocentric (difficulty taking others' viewpoint); classifies objects by a single feature; one of Piaget's four stages of development
  16. concrete operational
    7-12 years; thinks logically about objects/events; achieves conservation of number, mass and weight?; classifies objects my multiple features and can order them in series along a single dimesion; one of Piaget's four stages of development
  17. formal operational
    12 and up; thinks logically about abstract propositions; tests hypotheses systematically; concerned with hypotheticals (future, ideological problems); one of Piaget's four stages of development
  18. object permanence
    the understanding that an object continues to exist even when it is hidden from view
  19. theory of mind
    the ability to explain and predict other people's behavior as a result of recognizing their mental state (knowing that other people have mental states and using that knowledge to recognize their mental states)
  20. preconventional level
    earliest level of moral development, in which self-interest determines what is moral; one of three levels of moral judgement devised by Kohlberg
  21. conventional
    middle stage of moral developement, in which rules and the approval of others determines what is moral; one of three levels of moral judgement devised by Kohlberg
  22. postconventional
    highest stage of moral development, in which decisions about morality depend on abstract principles; one of three levels of moral judgement devised by Kohlberg
  23. morphemes
    the smalest units that have meaning, such as suffixes or prefixes
  24. phonemes
    what makes up morphemes; are basic sounds
  25. performatives
    consist of wordlike sounds that are learned in a context and that a baby may not be using to represent a meaning (ex: saying hello when holding a phone, immitating an observed action but not understanding the meaning of hello)
  26. true words
    clearly meant to represent concepts (cat meaning the concept of a pet)
  27. telegraphic speech
    the tendency for children to speak using rudimentary sentences that are missing words and grammatical marking but follow a logical syntax
  28. social development
    the maturation of skills or ability to enable people to live in a world with other people

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