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- ANXIOLYTIC; SEDATIVE-HYPNOTIC
- -psychoactive drug
- CNS depressant that appears to act at the limbic, thalamic, and hypothalamic levels of the CNS
- -enhances effect of neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid
- -results in:
- hypnotic (sleep inducing)
- anxiolytic (anti-anxiety)
- muscle relaxant
- amnesic action
- -properties make benzodiazepines useful in treating:
- muscle spasms
- alcohol withdrawal
- premedication for medical or dental procedures
anti-arrhythmic; anti-hypertensive; class II agent
-Beta1-selective adrenergic blocking agent with mild sympathomimetic activity (partial beta-agonist activity).
Decreases both systolic and diastolic BP at rest and during exercise. Exhibits antiarrhythmic activity (class II antiarrhythmic agent).
- -used for:
- mild to moderate hypertension.
- Management of recurrent stable ventricular arrhythmias.
ANTIVIRAL; ANTIPARKINSON AGENT
-MOA in parkinsonism may be related to release of dopamine and other catecholamines from neuronal storage sites.
-as adjunct with anticholinergic drugs
ANTICHOLINERGIC / ANTIMUSCARINIC
- -MOA: selectively blocking all muscarinic responses to acetylcholine (ACh), whether excitatory or inhibitory.
- -Antisecretory action (vagolytic effect) suppresses sweating, lacrimation, salivation, and secretions from nose, mouth, pharynx, and bronchi. Blocks vagal impuse to heart with resulting decrease in AV conduction time, increase in heart rate, and cardiac output, and shortened PR interval.
-Potent bronchodilator when bronchoconstriction has been induced by parasympathomimetics, and decreases bronchial secretions. Decreases GI spasm. Produces mydriasis and cycloplegia by blocking responses of iris sphincter muscle and ciliary muscle of lens to cholinergic stimulation. Increases heart rate and cardiac output.
BETA-ADRENERGIC AGONIST; BRONCHODILATOR
-selective affinity for beta2-adrenoreceptors on bronchial and selected arteriolar musculature.
-Synthetic sympathomimetic stimulant
-Effective in relieving brochospasms as well as facilitating expectoration of respiratory secretions.
- -Alpha-1 receptors cause contraction of smooth muscle in the prostate, prostatic capsule, prostatic urethra, bladder base, and bladder neck.
- *Both alpha-1a (70%) and alpha-1b receptors exist in the prostate.
-Blockade of alpha-1 receptors by alfuzosin causes smooth muscles in the bladder neck and prostate to relax, thereby reducing pressure on the urethra and improving urine flow rate. This results in a reduction in BPH symptoms.
-inhibits or delays the absorption of sugars from the intestinal tract.
-reduces blood sugar by interfering with carbohydrate absorption from the GI tract.
NARCOTIC ANALGESIC; OPIATE AGONIST; GENERAL ANESTHETIC
Analgesia is mediated through changes in the perception of pain at the spinal cord and at higher levels in the CNS. Brief duration of action is advantageous for short surgical procedures, but necessitates incremental injections or continuous infusion for long operations.
-to balance anesthesia
-primary anesthetic for induction of anesthesia when endotracheal and mechanical ventilation are required.
H2-RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST; ANTISECRETORY
-high selectivity for histamine H2-receptors on parietal cells of the stomach.
-Blocks the H2-receptors on the parietal cells of the stomach, thus decreasing gastric acid secretion; raises the pH of the stomach and thereby reduces pepsin secretion.