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When setting up a ventilator the two most important controls to set first are...
The tidal volume and the respiratory rate. Normal tidal volume for mechanical ventilation will be between 10 to 15 ml/kg of IBW. The respiratory rate should be set between 8 and 12 breaths per minute.
The purpose of the nasopharyngeal airway is to ...
To provide a patent airway and an access for repeated suctioning. It is not used for mechanical ventilation or CPAP. A nasotracheal airway is used for those purposes.
When performing bronchopulmonary clearance procedures, the therapist should first...
Administer an aerosol treatment, then postural drainage, percussion,deep breathing and coughing
The polarographic oxygen analyzer is...
An electrochemical analyzer that uses a Clark electrode to measure partial pressures. It is battery operated and is affected by water, high altitudes, a torn membrane, positive pressure, and a lack of electrolyte gel.
How to calculate a percentage change for a pre and post bronchodilator study...
First subtract the predrug measurement from the postdrug measurement Second divide the sum of the two by the predrug measurement. Third Multiple the answer by 100 to obtain the percentage. 15% is considered a significant change.
The Incentive Spirometry device measures...
The Inspiratory Capacity of the patient.
The list of drugs that can be put directly down an endotracheal tube can be remembered by the mnemonic LANE which stands for...
Lidocaine, Atropine, Naloxone, and Epinephrine
Increased difficulty in delivering an adequate tidal volume when using a manual resuscitator device will indicate
Decreased lung compliance and/or increased airway resistance. Adequacy of ventilation is assessed by bilateral chest movement and auscultation of breath sounds first and then arterial blood gases and pulse oximetry.
A patient who hyperventilates may experience dizziness and a tingling sensation in the fingers. This may occur during an...
IPPB treatment or during an Incentive breathing exercise.
ARDS (Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome) is also called...
Noncardiogenic Pulmonary Edema
The Galvanic fuel cell oxygen analyzer and the Polarographic oxygen analyzer are both affected by...
Water on the sensor, high system pressures, and changes in altitude.
Proper suctioning levels are...
-80 to -120 for the adult, -60 to -80 for the child, and -40 to -60 for the infant. The suction catheter should be 1/2 to 2/3 of the diameter of the endotracheal tube with 1/2 being the most acceptable.
Some of the criteria for using the HME (heat moisture exchanger) are...
That the patient has a normal temperature, is adequately hydrated, does not require humidity for retained secretions, and has a normal minute ventilation.
The temperature of the gas that is delivered to a patient using an ultrasonic nebulizer is...
3 to 10 degrees Centigrade higher than room air.
Before performing a peak inspiratory flow rate, the patient should...
Inspire to TLC (total lung capacity). The peak flow is defined as the maximum flowrate achieved during an FVC (forced vital capacity). This will be decreased in obstructive disorders.
A endotracheal tube must be positioned...
2 to 5 cm above the carina which is approximately at the aortic knob or above the fourth rib or at the fourth intercostal space.
A patient's total cycle time is obtained by...
Dividing the respiratory rate into 60 seconds. To obtain the inspiratory time from that, the total cycle time is divided by the I:E ratio (the two parts of the I:E ratio are added together and divided into the total cycle time).
If you are asked to calculate a patient’s FEV1/FVC ratio...
Take the largest FEV1 from at least two different valid attempts, and take the largest FVC from at least two different valid attempts and divide the FEV1 by the FVC and multiply by 100. Obstructive disease is indicated by a ratio of less than 75%.
Indications that a patient is having an adverse reaction to an IPPB treatment may include...
Bronchospasms, marked increase in heart rate and blood pressure, onset of hemoptysis, or symptoms of a pneumothorax.
A decreasing lung compliance will be indicated by...
Increasing plateau pressures as well as increasing peak pressures. An increasing airway resistance will be indicated by increasing peak pressures with minimal increases in plateau pressures.
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