Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

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Author:
heplac
ID:
49398
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Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
Updated:
2010-11-14 14:34:16
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AP II
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Description:
Chapter 26: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
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  1. Who has 73% or more body water content also with low body fat and low bone mass
    Infants
  2. Body water content in adult males and adult females
    • 60% in males
    • 50% in females
  3. This is the least hydrated tissue in the body containing 20% water
    Adipose tissue
  4. True or False: Fat contains more water than bone in the body
    False: bone contains more water than fat does.
  5. Skeletal muscle tissue contains about what percentage of water?
    75%
  6. Body water content declines to what percentage in old age?
    45%
  7. In liters, how much water does the body contain
    40 liters
  8. The Intracellular fluid (ICF) compartment (inside the cell) accounts for how much of the total water content of the body
    2/3 or 25 Liters
  9. The Extracellular fluid (ECF) compartment makes up how much of the total water content of the body
    1/3 or 15 Liters
  10. The Extracellular fluid (ECF) compartment makes up 1/3 or 15 L of the total water content of the body, how is this broken down?
    • Plasma 3 L
    • Interstitial Fluid (IF Space between cells) 12L
    • and other ECF: lymph, CSF, humors of the eye, synovial fluid, serous fluid, and gastrointestinal secretions.
  11. T or F: Water serves as a universal solvent
    True
  12. Water serves as the universal solvent in which a variety of solutes are dissolved. These solutes may be classified broadly as what?
    electrolytes and non-electrolytes
  13. These chemical compounds dissociate into ions (or charged particles) in water
    electrolytes
  14. This chemical compound includes Inorganic salts, both inorganic and organic acids and bases, and some proteins.
    electrolytes
  15. Electrolyte concentrations is the osmolality, expressed in this unit
    milliequivalentsper liter (mEq/L)(# of electrical charges in 1 liter of solution).
  16. These have bonds (usually covalent bonds), that do not dissociate to form charged particles.
    Non-electrolytes
  17. These are Organic molecules—glucose, lipids, creatinine, and urea
    non-electrolytes
  18. Any Changes in solute concentration in any compartment leads to what?
    net water flows.
  19. Exchanges between plasma and IF occur across what blood vessel.
    capillary membranes
  20. There is a small net leakage that remains behind in the interstitial space this is removed by what system
    lymphatic system
  21. Exchanges between the IF and the ICF occur across plasma membranes and depend on the
  22. Exchanges between the IF and the ICF occur across plasma membranes and depend on the membranes' what
    complex permeability properties
  23. Exchange between the IF and ICF in general are two-way osmotic flow of water and is substantial. But ion fluxes are restricted and in most cases, ions move selectively by active transport or through channels. What would be included in these movements?
    nurtients, respiratory gases and wastes. They are typically unidirectional.
  24. For the body to remain properly hydrated, water intake must equal what?
    water output
  25. Water intake varies widely from person to person but is typically how much a day in adults
    2500 ml
  26. How does most water enter the body
    through ingested liquids and solid foods
  27. Body water produced by cellular matabolism is call what
    metabolic water or water of oxidation
  28. How is the average intake of water broken down
    • beverages 60%
    • foods 30%
    • metabolism 10%
  29. How is the average output of water broken down
    • urine 60%
    • insensible losses (via skin and lungs) 28%
    • sweat 8%
    • feces 4%
  30. Healthy people have a remarkable ability to maintain the tonicity (strength) of their body fluids within how much
    280-300 mOsm/kg
  31. A rise in plasma osmolality tiggers what 2 things
    thirst and release of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), which causes the kidneys to conserve water and excrete concentrated urine.
  32. What happens with a rise in plasma osmolality
    inhibits both thirst and ADH release, the latter followed by output of large volumes of dilute urine.
  33. What happens with a rise in plasma osmolality
    inhibits both thirst and ADH release, the latter followed by output of large volumes of dilute urine.
  34. Output of certain amounts of water is unavoidable. This is called what type of water loss
    Obligatory water loss is essential (urine, 500ML)
  35. The kidneys begin to eliminate input water how long after it is ingested.
    in about 30 minutes
  36. T or F The kidneys begin to eliminate input water in about 30 minutes after it is ingested. This delay reflects the time required to release ADH
    False: inhibit ADH release

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