The federal constitution was a political compromise between:
advocates of state sovereignty and central government
The commerce clause in the U.S. Constitution gives congress the power to:
regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states and with the indian tribes
which provision has the greatest impact on bsiness than any other constitutional provision
the commerce clause
Why does the federal government theoretically have unlimited control over all business transactions?
because any enterprise in the aggregate can have a "substantia effect" on interstate commerce
which amendment reserves all powers to the states that have not been expressly delegated to the national government?
State police powers include the right to:
state powers also include:
Commerce clause gives national government ________ power to regulate
States have a _________ power to regulate interstate commerce
when do dormant powers come into play?
when courts balance states interest vs natinoal interest
e.g., internet transactions
Supremacy Clause is which article in the constitution?
Supremacy Clause provides that constitution, laws and treaties of the U.S. are the ____ ____ _ ___ ____
supreme law of the land
In supremacy clause, concurrent laws mean?
both states and federal government share powers
Preemption in the supremacy clause
when congress chooses to act in a concurrent area, federal law preempts state law
Bill of Rights (1791)
ten written guarantees of protection of individual liberties from government interference
originally the bill of rights applied only to the _________ government
later Bill of Rights was incorporated and applied to states as well
Freedom of Speech
-basis for our democratic government
Schools can or cannot restrict students right to speech
morse v. frederick, 2007
government restrictions to protect commercial speech (advertising)
seek to implement substantial government interest
directly advance that interest
must go no further than necessary to accomplish
certain speech that is NOT protected
threatening speech that violates criminal laws
what is obscene speech
patently offensive, vioates community standards and has no literary artistic, politiccal or scientific merit
what guarantees that "congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof..."
First Amendment: Freedom of Religion
no state sponsored religion or preference for one religion over another
person can believe what he wants, but actions may be unconstitutional
Fourth amendment protects the right to __________ from government intrusion into their personal lives
Generally, government must have a _________ based on ________ to search someones private place
is a warrant generally necessary to search businesses to ensure compliance with federal and state regulations
no warrant is necessary to seize contaminated _______, or search businesses that are _____ _______ industries
Due Process is both ______ and _______
any government decision to take life, liberty or property must be fair.
requires: notice and fair hearing
focuses on the content or the legislation (the right itself)
requires compelling state interest
rational relationship to state interest
14th Amendment: Equal Protection
a state may not "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws"
what freedoms are guaranteed by the First Amendment?
the first amendment guarantees the freedoms of religion, speech, and the press and the rights to assemble peaceably and to petition the government
The Second Amendment guarantees?
the second amendment concerns a well-regulated militia and the right of theh people to keep and bear arms
the third amendment grants?
the third amendment prohibits, in peacetime, the lodging of soldiers in any house without the owner's consent
the fourth amendment:
prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures of persons or property
the fifth amendment guarantees:
the right to indictment by grand jury, to due process of law, and to fair paymet when private property is taken for public use. it also prohibits compulsory self incrimination and double jeopardy
the sixth amendment guarantees:
the accused in a criminal case ther ight to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury and with cousel. the accused has the right to cross-examine witnesses against him or her and to solicit testimony from witnesses in his or her favor
the seventh amendment guarantees:
the right to a trial by jury in a civil case involving at least twenty dollars
the eighth amendment:
prohibits excessive bail and fines, as well as cruel and unusual punishment
the ninth amendment:
establishes that the people have rights in addition to those specified in the costitution
the tenth amendment:
establishes that those powers neither delegated to the federal government nor denied to the states are reserved for the states