an undesirable reaction produced by a normal immune system
Selective IgA deficiency, transient hypogammaglobulinemia, XLA, and IgH chain locus deletion are best classified as what type of deficiency?
DiGeorge syndrome, CD3 deficiency, ZAP-70 deficiency, BLS 1/2, IL-12 (R), IFNgamma receptor deficiencies, hyper IgM syndrome types 1/2 are best classified as what type of deficiency?
Gamma chain deficiency, adenosine deaminase deficiency, RAG 1/2, and Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome are best classified as what type of deficiencies?
Combined immune deficiencies
Cyclic neutropenia, LAD (1,2,3 and 4), Chediak-Higashi syndrome, chronic granulomatus disease, and neutrophil granule deficiency are best classified as what type of deficiencies?
Phagocytic cell deficiencies
MBL and C2 deficiencies, Factor I and H deficiencies, HAE, C4b-BP deficiency, and PNH are best classified as what type of deficiencies?
IRAK-4 mutations, MBL deficiencies, Defensin deficiencies, and Nod2 deficiency are best classified as what types of deficiencies?
Inherited defects in innate immunity; result in infectious diseases
Abs against ABO carbohydrate antigens
Hypersensitivity; Type I
APC presents an Ag to The2 cells; produces IL-4 and IL-13 (promotes class switchign to IgE)
Overreaction of immune system to non-pathogenic substance
Hypersensitivity; type I
Lumgs and airways primarily; mucous plugging and expiratory wheezing; hyperinflated lungs when having an attack
Common in developed world
Controlled with steroids and bronchodilators
Rh- mom; if not given Rhogan during first pregnancu (assuming Rh+ child), will become sensitized to Rh Ag and produce anti-Rh Abs
Normal first pregnancy; subsequent Rh+ babies are attacked by mom's anti-Rh IgG Abs that cross placenta
Give Rhogan during pregnancy (regardless of phenotype of fetus) and after delivery (if baby is RH+)
Hypersensitivity; Type III
Ag-Ab immunes complex reaction acts as anaphylatoxins; cause mast cell degranulation and anaphylactoid shock
Induced by anti-thymocyte globulin (post-transplant), ant-toxin therapy (for hepatitis), and certain drugs (penicillin)
Symptoms=fever, urticaria (hives), hypotension, vasculitis, hemorrhage, lymphdenopathy, arthralagia, and glomerulonephritis
Hypersensitivity; type I
Similar to atopic allergies
Loss of tolerance
Hypersensitivity; type IV
CAn be induced by poison ivy, metal, etc
CTLs, macrophages, and NK cells cause production of TNFalpha, prostaglandinds (contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle), and leukotrienes
Serious type I hypersensitivity; occurs upon 2nd exposure to Ag
Systemic shock form of allergy that can occur in response to insect venoms, certain foods, radiocontrast media, latex (cross-reactivity with banana, avocado, and chestnut), and drugs (penicllin cross reaction with cephalosporin)
IgE mediated; mast cell mediators include histamine, proteases (tryptase, chymase), PGs, Leukotrienes, Cytokines, and platelet activating factor
cardiovascular, pulmonary, GI, and cutaneous systems involved; can have difficulty breathing due to allergic reaction inducing angioedema blocking of lungs; generalizd prurutis, apprehension, hypotension, abdominal crampling, tachycardia, tachypnea, and hives
Treat (remember your ABCs): maintain airway, reverse bronchoconstriction, and ensure adequate circulation; timely injection of epinephrine is life saving
(Coombs +) Hemolytic Anemia
Auto-Abs to RBCs
Decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, and increased bilirubin
Symptoms of anemia; fatigue, shortness of breath, pale skin due to poor O2 circulation; also hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, etc.
Type I diabetes
Auto-Abs to beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin
Inability to produce insulin in order to lwoer blood sugar leads to hyperglycemia and subsequent diabetes
Auto-Ab to myelinated cells in the CNS (Schwann cells); decreased production of myelin
Scars in white matter of the brain and spinal cord which are normally filled with myelin
Neurological symptoms; physical and cognitive disability
Ag-Ab complexes deposit in the sinovial joints (bilaterally); deformations of hands and joints; destruction of articular cartilage and ankylosis of joint
Onset between 40 and 50; better with exercise, worse with rest
Treat with anti-TNFalpha drugs; decrease impact of body's inflammatory response
Autoimmune disease; type III hypersensitivity
Systemic lupus erythematosus; more common in females and African Americans