Learning occurs when experience (including practice) causes a relatively permanent change in an individuals knowledge or behavior.
What do cognitive psychologists focus their studies on?
Cognitive psychologists focus on changes in knowledge and believe learning is an internal mental activity that can not be observed directly. (thinking, remembering, problem solving)
Behavioral Learning Theories
The outcome of learning is change in behavior and emphasizes the effects of external events on the individual.
We remember things together (1) when they are similar, (2) when they contrast, and (3) when they are contiguous.
Whenever two or more events occur together often enough, they will become associated.
Event that activates behavior
Observable reaction to a stimulus
focuses on the learning of involuntary emotional or physiological responses
Automatic responses to stimuli
1920's Russian physiologist who was trying to determine how long it took a dog to secrete digestive juices after it had be fed, but his experiment changed when he noticed that the dogs began to salivate when the researchers would get up to feed them. He learned that he could cause the dogs to salivate when introducing different stimuli when presenting the food or eventually without presenting food. ie. the bell ringing without food
stimulus not connected to a response
stimulus that automatically produces an emotional or physiological response
naturally occurring emotional or physiological response
stimulus evokes a response after conditioning
learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
learning in which voluntary behavior is strengthened or weakened by consequences or rewards