MedT Ch. 13&14

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llinderl
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MedT Ch. 13&14
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2010-11-14 15:25:54
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HLHS 101: Ch. 13 Blood System & Ch. 14 Lymphatic and Immune Systems
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  1. protein in blood; maintains the proper amount of water in the blood
    albumin
  2. protein (immunoglobulin) produced by lymphocytes in response to bacteria, viruses, or other antigens
    antibody (Ab)
  3. substance (usually foreign) that stimulates the production of an antibody
    antigen
  4. white blood cell containing granules that stain blue; associated with release of histamine and heparin
    basophil
  5. orange-yellow pigment in bile; formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells die
    bilirubin
  6. blood clotting
    coagulation
  7. protein that stimulates the growth and proliferation of white blood cells (granulocytes)
    colony-stimulating factor (CSF)
  8. change in structure and function of a cell as it matures; specialization
    differentiation
  9. method of separating serum proteins by electrical charge
    electrophoresis
  10. white blood cell containing granules that stain red; associated with allergic reaction
    eosinophil
  11. red blood cell; 5 million per microliter of blood
    erythrocyte
  12. hormone secreted by the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell formation
    erythropoietin (EPO)
  13. protein threads that form the basis of a blood clot
    fibrin
  14. plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process
    fibrinogen
  15. plasma protein; alpha, beta, and gamma (immune) globulins are examples
    globulin
  16. white blood cell with numerous dark-staining granules; eosinophil, neutrophil, and basophil
    granulocyte
  17. blood protein containing iron; carries oxygen in red blood cells
    hemoglobin
  18. destruction or breakdown of blood (red blood cells)
    hemolysis
  19. anticoagulant found in blood and tissue cells
    heparin
  20. response of the immune system to foreign invasion
    immune reaction
  21. protein (globulin) with antibody activity; examples are IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD
    immunoglobulin
  22. white blood cell
    leukocyte
  23. mononuclear leukocyte that produces antibodies
    lymphocyte
  24. monocyte that migrates from the blood to tissue spaces; as a phagocyte it engulfs foreign material and debris
    macrophage
  25. large platelet precursor cell found in the bone marrow
    megakaryocyte
  26. leukocyte with one large nucleus; it is a cell that engulfs foreign material and debris; become macrophages as they leave the blood and enter body tissues
    monocyte
  27. pertaining to a cell (leukocyte) with a single nucleus; ex: lymphocytes and monocytes
    mononuclear
  28. granulocytic leukocyte formed in bone marrow; a phagocytic tissue-fighting cell; also called a polymorphonuclear leukocyte
    neutrophil
  29. removal of plasma from withdrawn blood by centrifuge; collected cells are transfused back into the donor; fresh-frozen plasma or salt solution is used to replace withdrawn plasm
    plasmapheresis
  30. small blood fragment that collects at sites of injury to begin the clotting process
    platelet
  31. plasma protein; converted to thrombin in the clotting process
    prothrombin
  32. immature erythrocyte; a network of strands (reticulin) is seen after staining the cell with special dyes
    reticulocyte
  33. antigen on red blood cells of Rh-positive (RH+) individuals
    Rh factor
  34. plasma minus clotting proteins and cells; clear, yellowish fluid that separates from blood when it is allowed to clot; it is formed from plasma, but does not contain protein-coagulation factors
    serum
  35. unspecialized cell that gives rise to mature, specialized forms; hematopoietic ones are teh progenitor for all different types of blood cells
    stem cell
  36. enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin during coagulation
    thrombin
  37. platelet
    thrombocyte
  38. bas/o
    base (the opposite of acid)
  39. chrom/o
    color
  40. coagul/o
    clotting
  41. cyt/o
    cell
  42. eosin/o
    red, dawn, rosy
  43. erythr/o
    red
  44. granul/o
    granules
  45. hem/o
    blood
  46. hemat/o
    blood
  47. hemoglobin/o
    hemoglobin
  48. is/o
    same, equal
  49. kary/o
    nucleus
  50. leuk/o
    whtie
  51. mon/o
    one, single
  52. morph/o
    shape, form
  53. myel/o
    bone marrow
  54. neutr/o
    neutral (neither acid nor base)
  55. nucle/o
    nucleus
  56. phag/o
    eat, swallow
  57. poikil/o
    varied, irregular
  58. sider/o
    iron
  59. spher/o
    globe, round
  60. thromb/o
    clot
  61. -apheresis
    removal, a carrying away
  62. -blast
    immature cell, embryonic
  63. -cytosis
    abnormal condition of cells
  64. -emia
    blood condition
  65. -globin, -globulin
    protein
  66. -lytic
    pertaining to destruction
  67. -oid
    derived from
  68. -osis
    abnormal condition
  69. -penia
    deficiency
  70. -phage
    eat, swallow
  71. -philia
    attraction for
  72. -phoresis
    carrying, transmission
  73. -poiesis
    formation
  74. -stasis
    stop, control
  75. cells are unequal in size
    anisocytosis
  76. cells have reduced color (less hemoglobin)
    hypochromia
  77. cells are large
    macrocytosis
  78. cells are small
    microcytosis
  79. cells are irregularly shaped
    poikilocytosis
  80. cells are rounded
    spherocytosis
  81. deficiency in erythrocytes or hemoglobin
    anemia
  82. type of anemia: failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow
    aplastic anemia
  83. type of anemia: reduction in red cells due to excessive destruction
    hemolytic anemia
  84. type of anemia: lack of mature erythrocytes caused by inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the body
    pernicious anemia
  85. type of anemia: hereditary condition characterized by abnormal sickle shape of erythrocytes and by hemolysis
    sickle cell anemia
  86. type of anemia: inherited defect in the ability to produce hemoglobin, usually seen in persons of Mediterranean background
    thalassemia
  87. excess iron deopists throughout the body
    hemochromatosis
  88. general increase in red blood cells (erythremia)
    polycythemia vera
  89. excessive bleeding caused by hereditary lack of blood clotting factors (factor VIII or IX) necessary for blood clotting
    hemophilia
  90. multiple pinpoint hemorrhages and accumulation of blood under the skin
    purpura
  91. increase in cancerous white blood cells (leukocytes)
    leukemia
  92. type of leukemia: AML; immature granulocytes, decrease platelets and erythrocytes, increase myeloblasts
    acute myelogenous leukemia
  93. type of leukemia: ALL; immature lymphocytes, seen most often in children and adolescents; onset is sudden
    acute lymphocytic leukemia
  94. type of leukemia: CML; increase mature and immature granulocytes, slow progression, older patients (55+)
    chronic myelogenous leukemia
  95. type of leukemia: CLL; abnormal numbers of mature lymphocytes increased in marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen, most common form, seen in the elderly
    chronic lymphocytic leukemia
  96. abnormal increase in granulocytes in the blood
    granulocytosis
  97. infectious disease marked by increased numbers of leukocytes and enlarged cervical lymph nodes; transmitted by Epstein-Barr virus
    mononucleosis
  98. malignant neoplasm of bone marrow
    multiple myeloma
  99. test for the prescence of antibodies that coat and damage erythrocytes
    antiglobulin test
  100. time required for blood to stop flowing from a tiny puncture wound
    bleeding time
  101. time required for venous blood to clot in a test tube
    coagulation time
  102. determination of numbers of blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and red cell values-MCH, MCV, MCHC
    complete blood count (CBC)
  103. speed at which erythrocytes settle out of plasma
    erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
  104. percentage of erythrocytes in a volume of blood
    hematocrit (Hct)
  105. total amount of hemoglobin in a sample of peripheral blood
    hemoglobin test (H, Hg, Hgb, HGB)
  106. number of platelets per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood
    platelet count
  107. test of the ability of blood to clot
    prothrombin time (PT)
  108. number of erythrocytes per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood
    red blood cell count (RBC)
  109. microscopic examination of a stained blood smear to determine the shape of individual red cells
    red blood cell morphology
  110. number of leukocytes per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood
    white blood cell count (WBC)
  111. percentages of different types of leukocytes in the blood
    white blood cell differential [count]
  112. separation of blood into component parts and removal of a select portion from the blood
    apheresis
  113. whole blood or cells are taken from a donor and infused into a patient
    blood transfusion
  114. microscopic examination of a core of bone marrow removed with a needle
    bone marrow biopsy
  115. peripheral stem cells from a compatible donor are administered to a recipient
    hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
  116. producation of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen
    acquired immunity
  117. mass of lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx
    adenoids
  118. protein produced by B cell lymphocytes to destroy antigens
    antibody
  119. substance that the body recognizes as foreign; evokes an immune response; most are proteins or protein fragments found on the surface of bacteria, viruses, or organ transplant tissue cells
    antigen
  120. lymph nodes in the armpit
    axillary nodes
  121. lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow and transforms into a plasma cell to secrete antibodies
    B cell
  122. lymph nodes in the neck region
    cervical nodes
  123. proteins in the blood that help antibodies and T cells kill their target
    complement system
  124. proteins that aid and regulate the immune response; ex: interferons and interleukins
    cytokines
  125. T lymphocyte that directly kills foreign cells (CD8+ cell or T8 cell)
    cytotoxic T cell
  126. specialized macrophage that digests foreign cells and helps B and T cells to mark antigens for destruction
    dendritic cell
  127. lymphocyte that aids B cells and cytotoxic T cells in recognizing antigens and stimulating antibody producation; also called CD4+ cell or T4 cell
    helper T cell
  128. body's ability to resist foreign organisms and toxins; includes natural and acquired
    immunity
  129. antibodies (gamma globulins) such IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM, and IgD that are secreted by plasma cells in response to the presence of an antigen
    immunoglobulins
  130. use of immune cells, antibodies, or vaccines to treat or prevent disease
    immunotherapy
  131. lymph nodes in the groin region
    inguinal nodes
  132. proteins (cytokines) secreted by T cells to aid and regulate the immune response
    interferons
  133. proteins (cytokines) that stimulate the growth of B and T lymphocytes (cells)
    interleukins
  134. fluid in the spaces between cells; this fluid becomes lymph when it enters lymph capillaries
    interstitial fluid
  135. thin, watery fluid found within lymphatic vessels and collected from tissues throughout the body
    lymph
  136. tiniest lymphatic vessels
    lymph capillaries
  137. lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus gland
    lymphoid organs
  138. a collection of stationary solid lymphatic tissue along lymph vessels
    lymph node
  139. carrier of lymph throughout the body; lymphatic vessels empty lymph into veins in the upper part of the chest
    lymph vessel
  140. large phagocyte found in lymph nodes and other tissues of the body
    macrophage
  141. lymph nodes in the area between the lungs in the thoracic cavity
    mediastinal nodes
  142. antibody produced in a laboratory to attack antigens and to destroy cells
    monoclonal antibody
  143. protection that an individual inherits to fight infection
    natural immunity
  144. lymphocyte that produces and scretes antibodies; originates from B lymphocytes (cells)
    plasma cell
  145. large lymphatic vessel in the chest that receives lymph from the upper right part of the body
    right lymphatic duct
  146. organ near the stomach that produces, stores, and eliminates blood cells
    spleen
  147. lymphocyte that inhibits the activity of B and T lymphocytes; also called a Treg (regulatory T cell)
    suppressor T cell
  148. lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow but matures in the thymus gland; acts directly on antigens to destroy them or produce chemicals (cytokines) such as interferons and interleukins that are toxic to antigens
    T cell
  149. the ability of T lymphocytes to recognize and accept the body's own antigens as "self" or friendly; once established the immune system will not react against the body
    tolerance
  150. large lymphatic vessel in the chest that receives lymph from below the diaphragm and from the left side of the body above the daiphragm; empties the lymph into veins in the upper chest
    thoracic duct
  151. organ in the mediastinum that conditions T lymphocytes to react to foreign cells and aids in the immune response
    thymus gland
  152. mass of lymphatic tissue in the back of the oropharynx
    tonsils
  153. poison; a protein produced by certain bacteria, animals, or plants
    toxin
  154. exposure of an individual to a foreign protein (antigen) that provokes an immune resonse; the response will destroy any cell that possesses that antigen on its surface and will protect against infection
    vaccination
  155. weakened or killed microorganisms, toxins, or other proteins given to induce immunity to infection or disease
    vaccine
  156. immun/o
    protection
  157. lymph/o
    lymph
  158. lymphaden/o
    lymph node (gland)
  159. splen/o
    spleen
  160. thym/o
    thymus gland
  161. tox/o
    poison
  162. ana-
    again, anew
  163. inter-
    between
  164. immunodeficiency disorder present at birth; affected infants are born with a deficiency of B cells and T cells resulting in a lack of immunity and have a small thymus
    severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID)
  165. group of clinical signs and symptoms associated with suppression of the immune system and marked by opportunistic infections, secondary neoplasms, and neurologic problems
    acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
  166. abnormal hypersensitivity acquired by exposure to an antigen
    allergy
  167. malignant tumor of lymph nodes and lymph tissue
    lymphoma
  168. malignant tumor of bone marrow cells
    multiple myeloma
  169. malignant tumor of the thymus gland
    thymoma
  170. substance capable of causing a specific hypersensitivity reaction in the body; a type of antigen
    allergen
  171. exaggerated or unusual hypersensitivity to foreign protein or other substance
    anaphylaxis
  172. hypersensitive or allergic state involving an inherited predisposition
    atopy
  173. malignant tumor of lymphoid tissue in spleen and lymph nodes; Reed-Sternberg cell often is found on microscopic analysis
    Hodgkin disease
  174. virus (retrovirus) that causes AIDS
    human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  175. malignant lesion associated with AIDS; arises from the lining of capillaries and appears red, purple, brown, black skin nodules
    Kaposi sarcoma
  176. group of malignant tumors involving lymphoid tissue; ex: follicular lymphoma and large cell lymphoma
    non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  177. infectious diseases associated with AIDS; they occur because HIV infection lowers the body's resistance and allows infection by bacteria and parasites that normally are easily contained
    opportunistic infections
  178. drug that treats AIDS by blocking the production of protease, a proteolytic enzyme that helps create new viral pieces for HIV
    protease inhibitor
  179. drug that treats AIDS by blocking reverse transcriptase, an enzyme needed to make copies of HIV
    reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI)
  180. weight loss, decrease in muscular strength, appetite, and mental activity; associated with AIDS
    wasting syndrome
  181. measure the number of CD4+ T cells (helper T cells) in the bloodstream of patients with AIDS
    CD4+ cell count
  182. screening test to detect anti-HIV antibodies in the bloodstream
    ELISA
  183. test that separates immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG, IgE, IgA, IgD)
    immunoelectrophoresis
  184. measurement of the amount of AIDS virus (HIV) in the bloodstream
    viral load test

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