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Study involving comparing people of different ages at the same point in time.
Study involving tracking the behavior of a single cohort over a long period of time.
Study involving people of different ages that are followed over a long period of time.
Study where researchers assess cause-and-effect relationships between at least two vatiables.
Study involves assessing the relationship between two variables, but neither variable is manipulated, so there is no way to determine whether changes in one variable cause changes in the other.
Study that takes place in real-life setting without the knowledge of the participants.
Describes how children's thinking (their ability to solve problems) changes as they get older.
Piaget's theory of cognitive development
Piaget; 0-2 yrs/Children think only in terms of what they can sense and what they can do with what they sense. (don't have object permanence)
Piaget; 2-6 yrs/Children gained object permanence, use intuitive logic and dominated by perception, highly egocentric. (don't understand conservation)
Piaget; 6-12 yrs/Children gain conservation and think logically, but only about things they've had direct experience or can easily imagine. (don't understand abstract concepts)
Concrete operational stage
Piaget; 12+ yrs/Children gain concept of abstraction and understands the logic of science.
Formal operational stage
Idea a child understands the world in one way and then sees something happen that can't fit into that understanding.
A child's understanding of how some aspect of the world works. (Piaget)
The taking in of new information, involves understanding of an event in terms of their current scheme. (Piaget)
The adaptive modification of the child's cognitive structures in order to deal with new objects or experiences. (Piaget)
Erikson's Eight Psyco-Social Stages
- 0-1 yrs Trust vs. Mistrust
- 1-3 yrs Autonomy vs. Doubt and Shame
- 3-5 yrs Initiative vs. Guilt
- 6-11 yrs Industry vs. Inferiority
- 12-18 yrs Identity vs. Role Confusion
- 18-35 yrs Intimacy vs. Isolation
- 36-55 yrs Generativity vs. Stagnation
- 55+ yrs Integrity vs. Despair
Kohlberg's moral stage based on doing what will get tangible rewards and not doing what will get punishment.
Kohlberg's moral stage involving upholding laws and rules just because they're laws and rules.
Kohlberg's moral stage based on one's own abstract ethical principles.