Chap 9 Terminology.txt

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teloff
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Chap 9 Terminology.txt
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2010-11-14 18:49:02
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Chap 9 Terminology
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  1. Antibody
    protective protein produced by B lymphocytes in response to presence of a foreign substance called an antigen
  2. Antigen
    substance recognized as harmful to the host and stimulates formation of antibodies in an immunocompetent individual
  3. Bile Pigments
    Substances derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin, produced by the liver and excreted in the form of bile
  4. Cytokines
    Chemical substances produced by certain cells that initiate, inhibit, increase or decrease activity in other cells
  5. Extracellular Fluid
    All body fluids found outside cells, including interstitial fluid, plasma, lymph and cerebrospinal fluid
  6. Host
    Organism that maintains or harbors another organism
  7. Immunocompetent
    ability to develop an immune response, or the ability to recognize antigens and respond to them
  8. Natural Killer Cells
    Specialized lymphocytes that kill abnormal cells by releasing chemicals that destroy the cell membrane causing its intercellular fluids to leak out
  9. Erythrocytes
    red blood cells
  10. Leukocytes
    white blood cells
  11. thrombocytes
    platelets
  12. anisocytosis
    condition of marked variation in the size of erythrocytes when observed on a blood smear
  13. ascites
    accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal or pleural cavity
  14. bacteremia
    presence of viable bacteria circulating in the bloodstream usually transient in nature
  15. graft rejection
    destruction of a transplanted organ or tissue by the recipient's immune system
  16. hemoglobin (Hgb) value
    measurement of the amount of hemoglobin found in a whole blood
  17. hematocrit (Hct)
    measurement of the percentage of RBCs in a whole blood sample
  18. Monospot
    non specific rapid serological test for infectious mononucleosis; also called the heterophile antibody test
  19. partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
    test that emasures the length of time it takes blood to clot. It screens for deficiencies of some clotting factors and monitors the effectiveness of anticoagulant (heparin) therapy; also called activated partial thromoplastin time (APTT)
  20. prothrombin time (PT)
    test that measure the time it takes for the plasma portion of blood to clot. It is used to evaluate protions of the coagulation system; also called pro time
  21. red blood cell (RBC) indices
    mathematical calculation of the size, volume and concentration of hemoglobin for an RBC
  22. Schilling test
    test used to assess the absorption of radioactive vitamin B12 by the digestive system
  23. lymphadenography
    radiographic examination of lymph nodes after injection of a contrast medium
  24. lymphangiography
    radiographic examination of lymph vessels or tissues after injection of contrast medium
  25. aspiration
    drawing in or out by suction
  26. bone marrow aspiration
    procedure using a syringe with a thin aspirating needle inserted (usually in the pelvic bone) to withdraw a small sample of bone marrow fluid for microscopic evaluation
  27. biopsy
    Representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis
  28. bone marrow biopsy
    removal of a small core sample of tissue from bone marrow for examination under a microscope and possibly for analysis using other tests
  29. sentinel node biopsy
    removal of the first lymph node (the sentinel node) that receives drainage from cancer-containing areas and the one most likely to contain malignant cells
  30. lymphangiectomy
    romoval of a lymph vessel
  31. transfusion
    infusion of blood or blood components into the bloodstream
  32. autologous transfusion
    transfusion prepared from the recipients own blood
  33. homologous transfusion
    transfusion prepared from another individual whose blood is compatible with that of the recipient
  34. transplantation
    grafting of living tissue from its normal position to another site or from one person to another
  35. autologous bone marrow transplantation
    harvesting, freezing (cryopreserving) and reinfusing the patients own bone marrow to treat bone marrow hypoplasia following cancer therapy
  36. homologous bone marrow transplantation
    transplantation of bone marrow from one individual to another to treat aplastic anemia, leukemia, and immunodeficiency disorders
  37. Anticoagulants
    prevent blood clot formation by inhibiting the synthesis or inactivating one or more clotting factors
  38. Sample an an anticoagulants
    • 1. TRADE: heparin
    • 1. heparin sodium
    • 2. TRADE: warfarin
    • 2. Coumadin
  39. antifibrinolytics
    neutralize fibrinolytic chemicals in the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose and urinary tract to prevent the breakdown of blood clots
  40. Sample of an antifibrinolytic
    • 1. TRADE: aminocaprioc acid
    • 1. Amicar
  41. antimicrobials
    destroy bacteria, fungi and protozoa depending on the particular drug, generally by interfering with the functions of theri cell membrane of their reproductive cycle
  42. samples of antimicrobials
    • 1. TRADE: trimethoprim; sulfamethoxazole
    • 1. Bactrim; Septra
    • 2. TRADE: pentamidine
    • 2. NebuPent; Pentam-300
  43. antivirals
    • prevent replication of viruses within host cells
    • used in the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS
  44. samples of antivirals
    • 1. TRADE: nelfinavir
    • 1. Viracept
    • 2. TRADE: lamivudine/ zidovudine
    • 2. Combivir

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