Chap 7 Terminology.txt

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Chap 7 Terminology.txt
2010-11-14 19:07:50
chap medical coding respiratory system

Chap 7 Terminology
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  1. Respiratory System
    Responsible for exchange of O2 and CO2
  2. Carbon Dioxide
    Tasteless, colorless, odorless gas produced by body cells during the metabolic process
  3. cartilage
    Tough, elastic connective tissue that is more rigid than ligaments but less dense than bone (tip of nose & outer ridge of ear)
  4. Cilia (singular Cilium)
    Any hair like structure
  5. Diffuse
    Moving or spreading out of a substance at random, rather than by chemical reaction or application of external forces
  6. Homeostasis
    State in which the regulatory mechanisms of the body maintain a constant internal environment
  7. Mucous Membrane
    Moist tissue layer lining hollow organs and cavities of the body that open to the environment; also called mucosa
  8. Oxygen (O2)
    Tasteless, odorless, colorless gas essential for human respiration
  9. pH
    Symbol that indicates the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance
  10. pH <7
    Increasing acidic pH
  11. pH =7
    neutral pH
  12. pH >7
    Increasing alkalinity
  13. Septum
    Wall dividing two cavities, such as the nasal septum, which separates the two nostrils
  14. Serous Membrane
    Thin layer of tissue that covers internal body cavities, the cells of which secrete a fluid that keeps the membrane moist; also called serosa
  15. Upper Respiratory Tract (9)
    • nasal cavity
    • nasopharynx
    • oropharynx
    • laryngopharynx
    • adenoids
    • palatine tonsils
    • larynx
    • epiglottis
    • trachea
  16. Lower Respiratory Tract (10)
    • bronchi (singular bronchus)
    • right lung/ left lung
    • bronchioles
    • alveoli (singular alveous)
    • pulmonary capillaries
    • mediastinum
    • visceral pleura
    • parietal pleura
    • diaphragm
  17. Inspiration
    inhalation of air into lungs
  18. Expiration
    exhalation of air out of lungs
  19. Olfactory Neurons
    receptors for the sense of smell
  20. Pharynx
  21. Pharyngeal tonsils
  22. Palatine tonsils
  23. Bronchi (singular bronchus)
    two branches connected to the trachea; each going to a separate lung
  24. Alveoli (singular alveolus)
    tiny air sacs at the end of the bronchioles; they expand and contract with the inflow and outflow of air
  25. Mediastinum
    the space between the right and left lungs
  26. These are located in the Mediastinum
    • Heart
    • Aorta
    • Esophagus
    • Bronchi
  27. Pleura
    a serous membrane covering the lobes of the lungs and folds over to line the walls of the thoracic cavity
  28. Visceral Pleura
    the serous membrane that covers the lungs
  29. Parietal Pleura
    the serous membrane that covers the walls of the thoracic cavity
  30. Pleural Cavity
    the space betweent he visceral pleura and parietal pleura
  31. Diaphram
    assists in changing the volume of the thoracic cavity to produce the needed pressure differential for ventilation
  32. Ventilation
    breathing; helps regulate the pH of the blood by exchanging O2 and CO2 to maintain homeostasis
  33. 4 processes of Respiration
    • pulmonary ventilation
    • external respiration
    • transport of respiratory gases
    • internal respiration
  34. Pulmonology
    medical specialty concerned with disorders of the respiratory system
  35. Pulmonologist
    physician who treats respiratory disorders
  36. Common signs & symptoms of many respiratory disorders
    • cough (dry or productive)
    • chest pain
    • altered breathing patterns
    • shortness of breath (SOB)
    • cyanosis
    • fever
  37. dyspnea
    difficult breathing
  38. bronchospasms
    spasms in the bronchial passages
  39. paroxysmal
    sudden and violent spasms in the bronchial passages
  40. productive cough
    coughing episodes that produce large amounts of mucus
  41. mucolytics
    agents that loosen and break down mucus
  42. bronchodilators
    medications that expand the bronchi by relaxing their smooth muscles
  43. status asthmaticus
    usual measures do not reverse the brochospasms
  44. Chronic Bronchitis
    inflammation of the bronchi caused mainly by smoking and air pollution, but viruses and bacteria may also cause it
  45. Bronchitis symptoms
    • swelling of the mucosa
    • heavy productive cough
    • commonly accom. by chest pain
    • exercise intolerance
    • wheezing
    • SOB
  46. Expectorants
    bronchodilators and medications that aid in the removal of mucus and help to widen the air passages
  47. Emphysema
    decreased elasticity of the alveoli; they expand but are unable to contract to their original size.
  48. Pharynx consists of
    • Nasopharynx
    • Oropharynx
    • Laryngopharynx
  49. Nasopharynx consists of
    • adenoids (pharyngeal tonsils)
    • palatine tonsils (tonsils)
  50. Influenza
    an acute infectious respiratory viral disease
  51. Pandemic
    • a worldwide epidemic
    • type A influenza
    • occur about every 2-3 years
  52. Virulent
    highly infectious
  53. Type B Influenza
    Geographical rather than worldwide
  54. Type C Influenza
    A mild flu; not associated with an epidemic
  55. Flu symptoms
    • fever, chills
    • headache, myalgia
    • loss of appetite
  56. Pleural Effusion
    any abnormal fluid in the pleural cavity, the space between the visceral and parietal pleura
  57. Auscultation
    the listening of sounds made by organs of the body using a s tethoscope
  58. Percussion
    the gentle tapping of the chest with the fingers and listening to the resultant sounds to determine the position, size or consistency of the underlying structures
  59. Transudate
    a noninflammatory fluid that resembles serum but with slightly less protein
  60. Effusion classifications
    • Transudates
    • Exudates
  61. Exudate
    Usually high in protein and often contains blood and immune cells
  62. Types of pleural effusions
    • Serum (hydrothorax)
    • Pus (empyema or pyothorax)
    • Blood (hemothorax)
    • Air (pneumothorax) (not considered a pleural effusion)
  63. Tuberculosis (TB)
    a communicable disease spread by droplets of respiratory secretions (droplet nuclei) from an infected individual when he/she coughs, laughs or sneezes
  64. Pneumonia
    Any inflammatory disease of the lungs that may be caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi
  65. Aspiration pneumonia
    Pneumonia caused by inhaling food or liquid
  66. Lobar pneumonia
    pneumonia affecting only one lobe of the lungs
  67. Hemoptysis
    spitting of blood
  68. Cystic Fibrosis
    A hereditary disorder of the exocrine glands that cause the body to secrete extremely thick (viscous) mucus
  69. Systemic Infection
    Major infections that affect the entire body
  70. Sepsis
    Blood infection
  71. Symptoms of HMD or IRDS
    • Cyanosis of the extremities (blueness)
    • Nares (flaring of the nostrils)
    • Tachypnea (rapid breathing)
    • Intercostal retraction
    • A characteristic grunt audible during exhilation
  72. Acidosis
    Excessive acidity of body fluids
  73. Anosmia
    Absence of the sense of smell
  74. Apnea
    Temporary loss of breathing
  75. Asphyxia
    Condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen
  76. Atelectasis
    Collapsed or airless state of the lung, which may be acute or chronic and affect all or part of a lung
  77. cheyne-Stokes respiration
    Repeated breathing pattern characterized by fluctuation in the depth of respiration, first deeply, then shallow, then not at all
  78. Compliance
    Ease with thich lung tissue can be stretched
  79. Coryza
    Head cold; upper respiratory infection (URI)
  80. Crackle
    Abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation, caused by exudates, spasms, hyperplasia or when air enters moisture-filled alveoli; also called rale
  81. Croup
    Common childhood condition involving inflammation of the larynx, trachea, bronchial passages and sometime lungs
  82. Deviated Nasal Septum
    Displacement of cartilage dividing the nostrils
  83. Epiglottitis
    Severe, life-threatening infection of the epiglottis and supraglottic structures that occurs most commonly in children between 2 and 12 years of age
  84. Signs of epiglottis
    • fever
    • dysphagia
    • inspiratory stridor
    • severe respiratory distress
  85. Epistaxis
    Nosebleed; nasal hemorrhage
  86. Finger Clubbing
    Enlargement of the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes, commonly associated with pulmonary disease
  87. Hypoxemia
    Deficiency of oxygen in the blood
  88. Hypoxia
    Deficiency of oxygen in tissues
  89. Pertussis
    Acute infectious disease characterized by a cough that has a "whoop"
  90. Pleurisy
    Inflammation of the pleural membrane characterized by a stabbing pain that is intensified by coughing or deep breathing; also called pleuritis
  91. Pneumoconiosis
    Disease caused by inhaling dust particles, including coal dust (anthracosis), stone dust (chalicosis), iron dust (siderosis) and asbetos particles (asbestosis)
  92. Pulmonary edema
    Accumulation of extravascular fluid in lung tissues and alveoli, caused most commonly by heart failure
  93. Pulmonary embolus
    Blockage in an artery of the lungs caused by a mass of undissolved matter (such as a blood clot, tissue, air bubbles and bacteria)
  94. Rhonchus
    Abnormal breath sound heard on auscultation
  95. Stridor
    High-pitched, harsh, adventitious breath sound caused by a spasm or swelling of the larynx or an obstruction in the upper airway.
  96. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
    Completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently normal, healthy infant, usually less than 12 months of age; also called crib death
  97. Wheeze
    Whistling or sighing sound heard on auscultation that results from narrowing of the lumen of the respiratory passageway
  98. Wheezing is a sign of:
    • Asthma
    • Croup
    • Hay fever
    • Obstructive emphysema
    • Other obstructive respiratory conditions
  99. Mantoux test
    Intradermal test of determine tuberculin sensitivity based on a positive reaction where the area around the test site becomes red and swollen
  100. Oximetry
    Noninvasive method of monitoring the percentage of hemoglobin (Hb) saturated with oxygen; also called pulse oximetry
  101. Polysomnography
    Test of sleep cycles and stages using continuous recordings of brain waves (EEGs), electrical activity of muscles, eye movement (electro-oculogram), respiratory rate, blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, heart rhythm and sometimes direct observation of the person during sleep using a video camera
  102. Pulmonary Function Tests
    Multiple tests used to evaluate the ability of the lungs to take in and expel air as well as perform gas exhange across the alveolocapillary membrane
  103. Spirometry
    Measurement of ventilatory ability by assessing lung capacity and flow, including the time necessary for exhaling the total volume of inhaled air
  104. Bronchoscopy
    Visual examination of the bronchi using an endoscope (flexible fiberoptic or rigid) inserted through the mouth and trachea for direct viewing of structures or for projection on a monitor
  105. Laryngoscopy
    Visual examination of the larynx to detect tumors, foreign bodies, nerve or structural injury or other abnormalities
  106. Mediastinoscopy
    Visual examination of the mediastinal structures including the heart, trachea, esophagus, bronchus, thymus, and lymph nodes
  107. Arterial blood gas (ABG)
    Test that measures partial pressure of oxygen (Po2), carbon dioxide (Pco2), pH (acidity or alkalinity), and bicarbonate level of an arterial blood sample.
  108. Sputum Culture
    Microbial test used to identify disease-causing organisms of the lower respiratory tract, especially those that cause pneumonias
  109. Sweat Test
    Measurement of the amount of salt (sodium chloride) in sweat
  110. Throat Culture
    Test used to identify pathogens, especially group A streptococci
  111. Radiographic
    Process of producing images using an x-ray passed t hrough the body or area and captured on a film
  112. Thoracic (Chest)
    Images of the chest taken from anteroposterior (AP) projections, posteroanterior (PA) projection, lateral projection or a combination of these projections
  113. Chest Radiography is used to diagnose:
    • Rib fractures
    • Lung diseases, including atelectatis, masses, pneumonia, and emphysema
  114. Scan
    Imaging procedure that gathers information about a specific organ or structure of the body. In some cases, small amounts of injected radionuclide (tracer) are used to enhance images
  115. Lung Scan
    Nuclear scanning test primarily used to detect pulmonary emboli
  116. Aerosol Therapy
    Lung treatment using various techniques to deliver medication in mist form directly to the lungs or air passageways. Techniques include nebulizers, metered-dose inhalers (MDI's), and dry powder inhalers (DPI's)
  117. Lavage
    Irrigating or washing out of an organ, stomach, bladder, bowel or body cavity with a stream of water or other fluid
  118. Antral Lavage
    Irrigation of the antrum (maxillary sinus) in chronic or nonresponsive sinusitis
  119. Postural Drainage
    Positioning a patient so that gravity aids in the drainage of secretions from the bronchi and lobes of the lungs
  120. Pleurectomy
    Excision of part of the pleura, usually parietal
  121. Pneumectomy
    Excision of a lung
  122. Rhinoplasty
    Reconstructive surgery of the nose to correct deformities or for cosmetic puposes
  123. Septoplasty
    Surgical repair of a deviated nasal septum usually performed when the septum is encroaching on the breathing passages or nasal structures
  124. Thoracentesis
    Surgical puncture and drainage of the pleural cavity; also called pleurocentesis or thoracocentesis
  125. Tracheostomy
    Surgical procedure in which an opening is made in the neck and into the trachea into which a breathing tube may be inserted