Bio 100

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Bio 100
2010-11-14 19:52:25


Chromosomes and Inheritance
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  1. X-linked inheritance
    • Some genes that couse disorders are located on the X chromosome
    • Any gene located on a sex chromosomes is called a sex-linked gene.
    • Male more often affected by X-linked disease becuase they have only one X chromosome, women are protected becuase they will have the other gene functional on the second X chromosom.
    • Red-green color blindness, hemophili(problem with blood clotting), muscular dystrophy.

  2. Recessive disorder
    • meaning genetic disorder that will not exist in the presence of a functional allele.
    • In females, one X is difective the other X has a non difective - no disorder
    • In males, X has diffective gene, that has no pair and therefore disorder

  3. Autosomes

    All the chromosomes other than the X and Y chromosomes.

  4. Autosomal recessivce disorder

    • A recessive dysfunction related to an autosome.(any 22 autosomes)
    • ex. sickle-cell anemia, albinism, cysctic fibrosis,

  5. Carrier

    a person who does not suffer from a recessive genetic debilitation, but who carries an allele for it that can be passed along to offspring.

  6. Dominant disorder
    • genetic conditions in which a single faulty allele can cause damage, even when a second, functional allele exists.

  7. Autosomal dominant disorder

    • simply meaning a dominant genetic disorder caused by a faulty allele that lies on an autosomal chromosome.
    • ex. Huntington disease

  8. Pedegree
    • familial history intended to track genetic conditions. Diagram can detirmin wheater a condition is dominant or recessive, and X-linked or autosomal and probability for future inheritance.

  9. Polyploidy

    condition in which one or more entire sets of chromosomes has been added to teh genome of a diploid organism. Uncomon, egg doesn't servive

  10. Aneuploidy

    • is one in which an organism has either more or fewer chromosomes than normally exist in its species' full set. Gain or loss of a single chromosome. Very common, and mostly unrecognized (unnoticed miscarigs). Ebryos that seruvive aneuplody that have additional chromosomes 13,18, or 21 ex. Down syndrom - gain of additional chrom 21(3 copies of chrom 21)
    • In somatic cells can happen at any age that lead to cancer.

  11. Nondisjunction
    • a cause of aneuploidy. A failrue of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate during meiosis. Can occur either in meiosis I or II.